Employment for All


 

EMPLOYMENT for all by 2000

From Job-less Growth to Job-Led Growth

October 1993

Report of the Working Group
International Commission on Peace and Food
2352 Stonehouse Drive, Napa, California 94558

 

ICPF Working Group on Employment:

Garry Jacobs - Convenor
M. S. Swaminathan
Dragoslav Avramovic
Manfred Kulessa
Martin Lees
Robert Macfarlane
Victor Nazarenko
Robert van Harten
C. Subramaniam
G. Rangaswami
Ajit Bhalla

_________________________________________________________________________

 

Executive Summary

Unemployment is a major cause of concern for governments around the world. The subject evokes pessimistic prophesies of a fast-approaching future in which tens of millions of people are unable to find jobs, technology replaces human labour, welfare systems collapse under an unbearable burden, children have less economic opportunity than their parents, and markets and governments are powerless to do anything about it. None of these outcomes is inevitable or even likely, provided society acts decisively to meet the challenge. A global overview of employment cannot do full justice to the special circumstances, problems and potentials of specific regions and countries, but it can address the growing perception and concern that employment has become a problem beyond the means of governments or the global economy to eradicate or even contain.

Employment is the essential basis for peace, food security and human development. When job opportunities are not available, social tensions and violence increase, threatening society. We are now capable of producing all the food and other basic necessities we need to feed, cloth and house everyone, but without sufficient opportunities for employment, people lack the purchasing power needed . Lack of employment opportunities is also directly linked to destruction of the environment.

The employment problem needs to be viewed in a long term and global perspective. The world economy has generated more than one billion jobs in the last four decades, more than were created during the previous four centuries. If past trends continue, it will create another 1.3 billion during the next 35 years. Contrary to common belief, the overall employment rate, the percentage of the working age population with jobs, has risen steadily in the post-war period. While automation does eliminate specific types of jobs, on the whole technological development creates many more jobs than it destroys. Hand in hand with an enormous quantitative growth, the quality of jobs has increased dramatically.

Despite these achievements, unemployment is of growing concern because population has expanded in recent decades even faster than job creation and because a larger percentage of the population, principally women, seek employment more now than at any time in the past. Recently, this trend has been aggravated by the sharp cuts in military spending, the extreme disruption of the centrally planned economies of Eastern and Central Europe, large government deficits and recession in the industrialized nations and their consequent impact on developing countries. Unless concerted action is taken, global unemployment is estimated to increase by 130 million during the 1990s.

This report presents a comprehensive package of strategies to stimulate more rapid increase in employment opportunities in developing and developed countries. The achievements of East Asian nations demonstrate that tremendous increases in productivity and employment can be achieved based on strategies that improve skills, organization, technology and investment. Agriculture has been a driving force for job growth in many of these countries, leading to the development of agro-based and down-stream industries. Investment in education and technical skills accounts for more than half of the increase in productivity that has fueled the growth of these economies. Improving the quality and quantity of primary education, especially in rural areas and for women, is the single most effective measure for continuous job growth. Promotion of small businesses and entrepreneurship, tapping new markets, improved technical and vocational training, an employment-oriented education, dissemination of information about markets and technology, smaller and more responsive types of industrial organization blending traditional and modern technologies, efficient and flexible labour markets, and expansion of the service sector are key elements of a successful job creation strategy.

Given the right mix of policies, good government and a conducive international environment for trade, technology transfer and investment, every nation has the capacity to develop and meet the employment needs of its people within the next one or two decades. While many successful prescriptions are known to all, very few are systematically and efficiently applied. Africa can benefit enormously by applying strategies that have worked in Asia. The "Prosperity 2000" program evolved by ICPF for India outlines a mix of these strategies to generate 100 million new jobs within a decade or less, which will be sufficient to raise 30 percent of the world's poorest billion people above the poverty line.

The present job crisis among Western nations is largely structural . A solution cannot be accomplished by mere incremental adjustments within the context of present attitudes and policies. A radical change is essential and inevitable. Employment must, and will come to, be recognized as a fundamental human right.( either as the result of bold leadership or in response to a growing social crisis.) This is a natural step in the historical development of government's role in insuring the education and welfare of its citizens. Without access to jobs, people lack the ability to ensure their own survival and support in modern society, where every type of human activity is regulated by government. Virtually all regulations--trade, labour, welfare, environment, zoning, licensing, commerce, transport--impact directly or indirectly on employment opportunities. Recognizing the right of every citizen to employment is the essential basis and the most effective strategy for generating the necessary political will to provide jobs for all. Pragmatism as well as idealism compels this step.

A package of strategies is presented to achieve full employment in the West based on a mix of elements that includes promotion of self-employment and small business development, redistribution of work through voluntary part-time and shorter working hours, changes in the structure of social security payments and taxes, restructuring of welfare programs to encourage retraining, wage controls, better labour market information systems, raising minimum educational standards, reorienting higher education to match skills better with jobs, intensifying training programs, re-examining government policies that impact on job creation, environmental work projects, national service corps and mechanisms to generate a more equitable distribution of incomes. The continuous development of knowledge and productive capabilities of the human being through liberal investments in education and technical training is the ultimate key to insuring employment opportunities for all in the future.

Globalization makes it impossible for individual countries to resolve their employment problems in isolation. A coordinated international effort is called for. Practical steps based on mutual benefit are needed to improve the global climate for economic growth and job creation by evolving stable and supportive policies to regulate capital flows, foreign trade, debt, commodity pricing, immigration and labour movements, transfer of technology, investment, military spending and the arms trade.

The single greatest barrier to solving the world's employment problem is the perception that jobs are a zero sum game, in which every gain by one country or part of the world necessarily involves a loss by another. There is nothing inevitable or immutable about the growth pattern of the world economy. Nor is employment an independent variable beyond the constructive influence of public policy. Our present system is the product of perceptions and choices that can and will change as its inadequacies and inconsistencies become more pressing and more apparent.

With demand satiated or stagnating in the West, the global economy needs a new engine to drive growth in developed and developing countries. The further growth of incomes and employment in the Third World is the ultimate key to stimulating continuous growth of incomes and employment for the entire world economy. Recognition of this can lead to a reorientation of policies that will support greater growth and prosperity for all.

Summary of Recommendations

Strategies for Developing Countries

1. Utilize agriculture as an engine by programs to upgrade technology, improve skills, raise productivity, ensure supply of essential inputs, establish marketing and distribution channels, create linkages between agriculture and industry, and cater to export markets.

2. Promote Small Enterprises by policies to make technology, training, credit, marketing and distribution channels more easily accessible to small business and by forging links between universities, research institutes and small enterprises.

3. Raise skills to increase productivity by vastly expanding the lower tiers of the agricultural, technical and vocational training systems at the local level to provide practical training in job-related skills.

4. Improve distribution systems to develop untapped markets by identifying missing links and establishing successful model programs that bridge the gap between rural producers and urban or overseas markets.

5. Develop export-oriented markets by forging foreign collaborations and technology transfer, creating an attractive commercial environment for foreign investment, and continuously building up the skills of the labour force.

6. Encourage import substitution focusing especially on food, energy, and selected manufacturing.

7. Place the employment objective high on the national agenda and consciously plan to stimulate growth in employment.

8. Actively encourage and support growth of the service sector through programs similar to those that have successfully supported expansion of small industry in many countries.

9. Reduce the mismatch between supply and demand for skills by first making a careful; assessment of present supply and demand for key skills. Compare the density of different types and levels of skill with countries at the next higher stage of development and evolve programs to raise the quantity and quality of skills to that level.

10. Conduct a comprehensive study of successful systems and institutions from developing and developed countries that can be transferred and adapted to local conditions in order to accelerate development in each field of activity.

11. Raise the educational qualifications of the workforce on a war footing to the level pertaining in more economically advanced nations. Place particular emphasis on primary and secondary education, rural education and education and young girls.

12. Reorient the educational curriculum at all levels, especially higher education, to impart the knowledge and attitudes needed to promote self-employment and entrepreneurship rather than salaried employment.

13. Encourage the establishment of new institutions, programs and systems to speed and extend the dissemination of practically useful information as a powerful catalyst for more rapid social progress. Encourage a national climate of openmindedness to foreign ideas, influences and success stories.

14. Evolve new organizational patterns for existing industries based on adaptation of new technologies in small, decentralized, labour intensive production units in order to make these industries more efficient and competitive.

15. Unleash the social energies and public initiative by redefining the role of government as that of a pioneer, catalyst and stimulant to the development of society, rather than as prime mover, owner and controller.

16. Introduce special employment programs for vulnerable portions of the population during the transition to a full employment economy.

17. Increase the speed of commercial transactions, especially money flows, in the economy by streamlining government and banking procedures, ensuring rapid utilization of funds by all government agencies, setting strict limits on the time taken for bank transfers, introducing agencies for credit verification and collection of unpaid bills, and improving the telecommunications infrastructure.

18. Evolve a comprehensive plan to achieve full employment by identifying untapped growth potentials in agriculture, industry, exports and services similar to the "Prosperity 2000" strategy developed by ICPF for India. Launch a nationwide program to implement all employment-related strategies on a highest priority basis.

Strategies for Full Employment in Advanced Industrialized Nations

19. Promote small businesses by expanding services to support new enterprises, introducing training courses, testing and certification for those who want to start businesses, and establishing business incubators to provide work space and shared services as well as technical, financial and marketing expertise to start-up companies.

20. Reduce business failures by expanding programs for management training, small business education and counseling, marketing assistance and financial management.

21. Redistribute work by reducing working hours and encouraging voluntary part-timism by removing the artificial barriers to job-sharing created by employment laws, social security tax laws, administrative procedures and trade unions.

22. Modify social security payments to increase the difference between minimum wage and maximum payments for the able-but-unemployed to provide greater incentives to job seekers for re-employment.

23. Orient social security programs toward re-employment through a comprehensive program of education and vocational preparedness for the unemployed, compulsory retraining for those who are unemployed for more than six months, and a strictly managed penalty system for unemployed persons who refuse three job offers and do not seek retraining.

24. Introduce wage controls to maintain competitiveness in return for a strong commitment by business to expand job creation.

25. Modify tax policies to reduce the incidence of taxation on labour and raise taxes on capital employed, non-renewable energy and material resources and arms exports.

26. Promote new types of enterprises, such as the highly successful EXODO retraining and employment cooperatives.

27. Improve labour market information systems within and between countries by increasing the accuracy and comparability of data, requiring mandatory reporting by businesses of all sizes and freely exchanging information between cities, states and countries on successful employment generating strategies.

28. Launch a nationwide public educational program on the tremendous potential gains in productivity from increased training and support initiatives to intensify training programs for all employees by every type of commercial and non-commercial institution in order to systematically upgrade the technical, vocational, organizational and managerial skills of the workforce.

29. Establish an apprenticeship program that combines classroom schooling with on-the-job skills training to ensure a smooth transition to employment for those who do not pursue higher education.

30. Create programs linking demilitarization with urban employment by utilizing the vast physical, educational and organizational resources of the military to impart training to unemployed youth.

31. Utilize national service organizations to carrying out educational, public health, environmental and other public service activities as part of a training-cum-employment program for youth, demobilized servicemen and retirees.

32. Provide information and incentives to reorient the curricula of colleges and universities in order to adjust course capacity to match the supply and demand for occupational skills.

33. Redirect welfare expenses for creating jobs by paying welfare recipients to carry out public service activities in return for welfare payments.

34. Re-examine public policies to assess the impact of legislation and regulations on employment and modify those that can be changed. Require employment assessment of new policy initiatives prior to adoption.

35. Raise the compulsory minimum standard, the average level and the quality of education in all fields and at all levels as a powerful medium term stimulus to job creation.

36. Make income distribution more equitable in order to stimulate greater demand, consumption and economic growth. Introduce a 'maximum wage' law requiring firms to pay taxes on exorbitant executive compensation.

37. Introduce new systems to build public confidence in government, industry, banks, economy and the future, in the same manner as the U.S. Government instilled public confidence in the banks by establishment of the Federal Deposit Insurance system.

Strategies at the Global Level

38. Expand the G7 to G10 or G12 and jointly set up a common international investment and employment program.

39. Organize under the ILO an international research program to construct a truly global employment model, showing the impact of plant closings, movement of industry to low-wage countries, changing patterns of trade, economic growth, immigration policies, refugee movements and other factors on employment opportunities around the world.

40. The growth of the Third World economies is the greatest potential engine for economic expansion and job creation in the West. Government policies based on recognition of this fact can considerably improve the climate for development of the Third World and correspondingly stimulate further job growth in the West.

41. More than two billion people in developing countries representing about 35% of the entire world's population are dependent on agriculture as a primary source of livelihood. This compares to 45 million people in industrialized countries, which is less than 1% of the world's population. The industrialized nations spend more than $300 billion annually on agricultural subsidies to support their farm population, which is nearly seven times the total world overseas development assistance. Agricultural subsidies in the North not only place powerful constraints on exports from developing countries but also directly interfere with the livelihood of one third of the entire human race. The reduction and eventual elimination of these subsidies, which is contemplated by GATT, represents the single most important step that can be taken to improve the employment opportunities for people in developing countries.

42. Launch a major initiative to change social attitudes about work by educating the public so that those who do not need to work financially can seek and find socially respected and psychologically satisfying alternatives to paid employment.

 

I. Introduction

Global Survey

In the brief period since Mikhail Gorbachev's initiatives ended the threat of nuclear confrontation between East and West, employment has emerged as the No.1 political issue worldwide. Recent experience with jobless growth in Western Europe and North America has raised fears of a long term decline in the employment generating capacity of the Western market economies, with devastating implications for most of the developing world. Increasing unemployment is raising the cry of protectionism, exerting pressure for reduction in foreign aid flows and generating strong resistance to liberal immigration policies. The notion of a progressive and permanent decline in the creation of new employment opportunities looms as a specter over the world's future economic prospects.

In the USA, official unemployment in late 1993 hovers around 6.8 percent, up markedly from a few years ago. But this figure understates the true number of unemployed, including those who have given up seeking jobs, which is probably above 10 percent. Although the unemployment rate in the U.S. remains below the level in the early 1980s, most of the job growth in the past decade has been in the lower wage service sector, rather than manufacturing industries. The impact of layoffs on the overall unemployment rate is heavily skewed against minority groups. Blacks are twice as likely as whites to be without jobs. Overall it has been estimated that more than 35 million Americans, 14.2 percent of the population, were living on incomes below the poverty line in 1991, including 30 percent of all blacks and Hispanics. Of the poor, 40 percent are children. Much publicized cuts in defense spending are projected to eliminate between 1.5 and 3 million jobs over the next five years. Despite continuing announcement of layoffs that are part of the on-going restructuring of corporate America, the U.S. economy added 1.8 million net jobs during 1993, primarily through growth of small and mid-sized companies. But there are strong indications that the problem is not merely a reflection of a short-term economic dip. The current situation is the result of a number of important long-term trends that will continue to have an impact on American society throughout the coming decade.

West European unemployment rates have reached the highest level in 30 years. They are projected to exceed 12 percent or 18 million people in 1994 and remain high throughout the decade, prompting EC President Jacques Delors to call employment Europe's "Achilles heel". Recent plant closings in Italy and other European countries have raised the likelihood of violence by disenchanted workers. Unemployment among people under age 25 is of special concern in many European countries. In mid 1993, the youth unemployment rate (aged 16-19) averaged nearly 20 percent, with rates of 36 percent in Spain, 28 percent in Ireland, 27 percent in Italy and 23 percent in France. Of equal concern is long-term unemployment (greater than one year), which averages around 45 percent of the unemployed and 4 percent of the labour force in the European Community as a whole and accounts for 80 percent of the jobless in Belgium and Italy. The emerging situation is posing a challenge to the European concept of the welfare state.

Employment in Eastern Europe has been severely disrupted by the breakup of the Comecom, the dissolution of the USSR and the movement of these countries from centrally planned to market economies. From the beginning of 1990 up to March 1992, registered unemployment grew from 100,000 to over 4 million, despite the rapid growth of jobs in the private sector. All these countries have experienced heavy job losses in the State sector and in agriculture. The impact would have been substantially larger were it not for their reluctance to abandon fully state control and support to firms. These economies all suffered from latent unemployment and underemployment during earlier decades, so the figures are indicative of a chronic problem. According to rough estimates, unemployment is currently around 18 percent in Bulgaria, 14 percent in Poland and Hungary, 8 percent in Romania and 5 percent in Czechoslovakia. Youth unemployment rates are 60 percent in Bulgaria and Poland. Joblessness has risen significantly in the republics of the CIS as well, but reliable data is difficult to obtain.

The challenge of creating "jobs for all" is not new to developing countries. The slow down in economic growth in Sub-Saharan and North Africa, the Middle East, Latin America and the Caribbean during the 1980s, declining terms of trade and the rising pressure for protectionist trade practices in the West, coupled with projections of continued high rates of population growth in many regions indicate that employment will be an even greater problem in much of the developing world during this decade.

In Latin America, 192 million people representing 46 percent of the population live under the poverty line, out of which 22 percent are considered "extremely poor". Urban unemployment is down slightly to around 8 percent, but average industrial wages in the region fell by 17.5 percent and the number of workers in the lower wage, less stable informal sector doubled during the 1980s. Population growth is down to 2.1 percent per year compared with 2.7 percent for the period 1950-90, but a 72 percent increase in labour participation rates for women is causing the work force to continue to expand rapidly. This region needs to double its growth rate in jobs and create 89 million new jobs during the 1990s in order to provide full employment opportunities for all its people.

In Sub-Saharan Africa--home to 20 of the 25 poorest nations in the world--urban unemployment afflicts some 14 million people, representing 15-20 percent of the workforce, and is projected to more than double in the next ten years. Real wages fell sharply throughout the region during the 1980s. The informal sector now constitutes more than 60 percent of the urban labour force. Typically, youth comprise 65 to 75 percent of the total unemployed. With its population still growing at 3 percent annually, these countries need to create 100 million new jobs in the coming decade just to maintain their present levels of unemployment.

High population growth coupled with a severe economic slowdown have generated high rates of unemployment in the Arab countries, estimated to exceed 25 percent during the 1990s, in spite of the very low labour participation rates among women in this region. In the aftermath of the Gulf crisis, labour supplying countries such as Jordan, Lebanon, the Sudan and Syria have suffered the most. Returnees swelled Jordan's population by 8.4 percent and caused unemployment to rise above 20 percent.

The countries of Asia and the Pacific have made the greatest strides in job generation during the 1980s and are poised to continue expanding rapidly. The Newly Industrializing Economies (NIEs), Hong Kong, S. Korea, Singapore and Taiwan-China, are all facing severe labour shortages, with Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia also moving into labour shortage situations. But other Asian countries continue to face major challenges in creating sufficient jobs for all. Despite China's rapid economic growth in recent years, the country still has a pool of 130 million surplus rural workers and 5 million urban unemployed. According to ICPF projections, India needs to create at least 100 million new jobs in the next ten years in order to raise all its poor above the poverty line.

Contributing Factors

A variety of factors contribute to the aggravated employment situation confronting most regions of the world today. Some of these causes are chronic tendencies that have persisted over decades. Others are of more recent origin or acuteness. The latter group includes:

o Reduced military spending has declined globally by one-third in real terms over the past four years--an unprecedented and remarkable achievement. The arms industry presently employs more than 15 million people worldwide, 90 percent of which are in the former Soviet Union, China, U.S. and Western Europe. The U.S. alone has lost one million defense jobs since 1987. From 1987 to 1997, the decline in defense-related employment in the USA alone could reach 2.6 to 2.8 million, more than canceling out the growth of 2.1 million defense jobs during the previous decade. Globally employment in defense industries is expected to decline by at least 3 to 4 million jobs by 1998.

o Strong pressure to reduce large government deficits in the developed-industrialized nations has resulted in reduced government spending and slower economic expansion in these countries.

o The breakup of Comecom and the USSR has had a strongly negative impact on trade within Eastern Europe, as well as with the industrialized West and developing countries.

o The extreme disruption of the centrally planned economies of Eastern and Central Europe during the early stages of their transition to market economies has led to high domestic unemployment in most cases.

o The high interest rates in Europe, resulting in part from tight monetary policies pursued by Germany, the largest European economy, to offset the enormous costs of reunification have had adverse effects on investment, growth and employment in the region.

o The increasing competitiveness of the Newly Industrialized Economies of Asia and most recently China has displaced jobs in the West.

o In response to intense competitive pressures from abroad, Western multi-national corporations have taken unprecedented steps to restructure and down-size their operations, resulting in massive layoffs and little new job creation by large corporations.

o Gains in productivity due to new technology, particularly delayed gains from the micro-computer revolution of the 1980s and the growth of factory automation, have slowed job growth.

o Slow recovery from the recent global recession has slowed growth of foreign trade.

o The impact of structural adjustments programs has slowed economic growth and new job creation in a number of developing countries.

II. Linkage Between Employment, Peace And Food

As the recent proliferation of local and intra-state conflicts clearly demonstrates, the end of the confrontation between East and West has not eliminated the incidence of war. Poverty and unemployment are closely linked to most instances of social unrest--tribal wars, civil wars, urban crime and violence. The growing demand of people everywhere to share in the benefits of modern society and the rising frustration with their comparatively slow or insubstantial progress have led to increasing social tension and violence that can only be alleviated by providing these people with opportunities to improve their living standards. Unemployment is a direct threat to social stability. Employment is the essential foundation for eliminating social conflict. A sustainable peace within nations and around the world requires the achievement of sustainable livelihood for all people. Unemployment is also a major cause of massive migrations, both to urban areas within countries and across borders, which has become a highly destabilizing factor in many regions. Employment is essential for peace and security, the most fundamental needs of every society: hence the call, "Employment for Peace".

Studies in the USA indicate the long term effect of demilitarization and conversion on employment and economic growth will be positive. But in the short term, they have had a severe negative impact both in the USA and Russia, perpetuating high levels of arms exports and generating considerable political and social resistance to rapid demilitarization, which can free enormous resources for more constructive social purposes.

Global food security can only be achieved when everyone has the minimum purchasing power required to procure their food needs. According to FAO, there is no global food shortage. Today, more food is produced on less land, but still about 800 million people are malnourished, 2 million people are threatened with starvation, and 40,000 children die daily due to causes of malnutrition. Economic entitlement, rather than a shortage of food or food production capacity, is the key to global food security.

Employment is also closely linked to human development. The acquisition of education and productive skills is essential for generating new employment opportunities and stimulating income growth. Experience has shown that it is not possible to achieve the dual goals of high levels of per capita national income and equitable income distribution without full or nearly full employment. Employment is the most reliable way to distribute the fruits of development among people.

III. Global Trends In Employment

Job creation during the 20th century

There is a widespread belief that joblessness is destined to become a more and more difficult problem to resolve in the coming decades. Yet viewed from an historical perspective, the evidence points to a different conclusion. The last half century has been a period of unprecedented job growth. Over the past 40 years, the global economy has generated more than one billion new jobs, and if the trend of past decades continues, it will generate more than 1.3 billion additional jobs during the next 35 years.

Rising unemployment and public anxiety about declining long term employment opportunities are not new. The radical transition of the U.S. economy late in the last century, prompted by the mechanization of agriculture and the introduction of mass production processes, displaced 4.4 million farm workers and forced many people, who could not rapidly adjust to the new skill requirements, into part-time and temporary jobs. Double digit unemployment persisted in America throughout much of the 1890s, resulting in violent outbursts of labour unrest and visions of a dismal future for workers. But in the years that followed, these dire visions proved to be wrong. Employment expanded at a phenomenal rate during this century, rising four-fold from 29 million jobs in 1900 to 118 million in 1990. Today, the same process appears to be unfolding in a new form. The recent slow-down in job growth is the result of a structural change in the economy rather than a long term decline. According to projections by the U.S. Bureau of Labour, total employment in the USA is expected to increase by another 25 million by 2005.

The same trend is true for the industrialized nations as a whole. Between 1967 and 1990, total employment in OECD countries rose by 87 million jobs or 30 percent. During this period, unemployment rose by 15.4 million persons, representing a doubling of the average unemployment rate. The primary reason for rising unemployment was that overall employment rates (the percentage of the population employed) have risen steadily in the more industrially developed nations during the post-War period, largely due to a 22 percent increase in the participation of women in the work force. Thus, more people are working than ever before, yet at the same time more people are unemployed, because a larger proportion of the population seek jobs. During this century, the employment rate in the U.S. rose from 38 percent to 46 percent of the total population and is expected to reach 51 percent by 2005. Japan has created 27 million new jobs since 1950 and its employment rate has risen from 43 percent to over 51 percent. In the European Community the employment rate has declined by 1 percent since 1965 and is presently just under 41 percent.

To some extent, the difference between European and American performance is attributable to the far higher percentage of the European work force engaged in agriculture 25 years ago. In addition, during the 1980s Europe chose a high wage path to growth, passing on the benefits to the existing work force but creating relatively few new jobs. The USA, with a similar growth rate over the decade, showed lower income growth per worker, but steadily raised the employment rate. The average employment rate in Europe (measured as a percentage of the working age population) is 60 percent, compared with 70 percent in the USA and Scandinavia, where activity rates for women are much higher. In Scandinavia and Japan, a high level of employment has been achieved with an income distribution more equal than in the rest of Europe and in North America. In the USA, both employment and income disparities have increased at the same time, largely due to the creation of many low wage jobs in the service sector.

Job growth has been quite rapid in the developing countries over the last forty years, more than doubling total employment. For example, the populations of Brazil and Ecuador both doubled between 1960 and 1990, yet growth in jobs was even greater. The economies of East and South East Asia expanded even faster, leading to near full-employment and labour shortages in Hong Kong, S. Korea and Singapore, and declining unemployment in Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand. In South Asian countries, unemployment is still high, around 25 percent of the labour force.

The single most important factor behind rising numbers of unemployed persons and increasing absolute numbers of families below the poverty line in developing countries has been the rapid growth of population in these countries during the last half century. The 2.4-fold expansion of population in the Third World and more than doubling of the economically active population since 1950, have generated enormous pressure on economic systems in developing countries to expand rapidly enough to absorb new entrants to the work force. Overall, the percentage of the total population employed has declined by nearly 4 percent during this period due to the more rapid expansion of population in these countries. Population growth rates continue to fall steadily in most countries, with the exception of Africa. This trend could provide an opportunity for economic growth and job growth to catch up with the population explosion of recent decades.

Along with rapid quantitative job growth, the global economy has achieved dramatic qualitative gains in the nature of employment. During recent decades, there has also been a marked movement away from subsistence level occupations, primarily in agriculture, to more skilled and remunerative forms of employment. Worldwide, the percentage of the work force engaged in agriculture has fallen by 24 percent since 1950, from 67 percent to 51 percent. In the more developed regions, the decline is much more dramatic, from 38 percent to 13 percent. In Africa, it fell from 82 percent to 69 percent. At the same time, global employment in industry rose from 15 percent to 21 percent and in services from 18 percent to 28 percent.

The shortages of jobs and the resulting poverty represent the most pressing social problem in the world today. But viewed in a historical perspective, it is clear that substantial progress has been made during the last quarter century, making humankind as a whole more prosperous than at any previous period in recorded history. Between 1965 and 1985, per capita consumption in the developing world rose by 70 percent. Despite the paramount concern raised by the persistence of high rates of unemployment in recent years, available data does not reveal any long term trend towards rising unemployment. The growing worldwide concern over employment partly arises because the population has come to enjoy and expect continued rapid growth in living standards, a greater participation of women, more social security and a more active role of government in economic affairs. It is also due to the fact that the media today exposes the average citizen to a tremendous barrage of information, which tends to dramatize the impact of short term trends or isolated aspects of a more complex phenomenon. For instance, the highly publicized figures of corporate down-sizing do not reveal what proportion of the jobs are simply being moved from large corporations to their smaller suppliers. The public is appalled by the quantitative presentations of the employment problem, without realizing that while the absolute numbers are large, in most instances the percentages are less than before and the magnitude of the problem has actually been declining.

Impact of Technology, Environment and Organization

Much of the pessimism over the future of employment opportunities arises from the widespread belief that machines are progressively replacing people in the workforce. No doubt, in the short term, technological development can lead to a mismatch between jobs and skills leading to higher levels of unemployment. But historically, there has been a strong positive correlation between technological development and job creation. Technological revolutions spur the general advancement of society, give birth to new products, new activities, new needs, and eventually create many more jobs than they destroy. Studies of factory automation technology in Third World countries by International Labour Organization show that "overall employment and trade effects of new technology have been clearly positive in major user countries." Historical economic research supports the conclusion that in the long term, there has been "no tendency for rising unemployment due to people being kicked out of jobs by machines."

Rising environmental standards in industrialized countries have frequently been opposed on the grounds of their negative impact on jobs. Yet there is substantial evidence that "Environmental protection is not a job killer, but a job maker." Increased reliance on solar energy and energy conservation measures could generate four million additional jobs in the USA. Environment regulations are projected to generate 680,000 new jobs in UK by 2005. Employment in Europe's waste management industry is projected to grow by 50% or 1.2 million jobs in the 1990s. On the other hand, the failure to prevent environmental degradation is very directly linked to loss of employment opportunities, especially in the developing countries. During the past 50 years, more than 65 million hectares of grazing land in Africa have been turned into desert, affecting the livelihood of nearly 100 million people. Approximately 10 million people have become environmental refugees. Nearly 80 percent of the poor in Latin America, 60 percent in Asia and 51 percent in Africa are presently living in marginal areas that are highly vulnerable to environmental degradation.

Not only changes in technology and attitudes to the environment, but every major advance in social attitudes, institutions, values and life style--higher standards of education, new types of organization, shifting attitudes toward marriage and the role of women, rising expectations concerning the rights of citizens and the responsibilities of government, greater seeking of comforts and recreation--has a duel effect on employment, creating jobs in some areas and destroying them in others. Higher education tends to reduce the willingness of people to accept jobs involving manual labour, but it also spurs creation of many new jobs by increasing demand for books, newspapers, information of all types and in all forms, scientific research and higher technology, new products and services, more travel and better health care. It is true that technology allows ten people today to accomplish what was done by 100 people a century ago. But it is also true that it permits 100 people to acquire and enjoy what was enjoyed by only 10 or perhaps only one person a hundred years earlier, thereby multiplying demand and employment in other fields. Those who refuse to believe in a future that is strictly limited to an extrapolation of past trends argue that the numbers and quality of 'jobs' will be a function not of physical constraints but of human resourcefulness and ingenuity.

"But with information now the dominant resource, the most important factor that limits expansion of work is not land or raw material or capital equipment or transportation, but the ultimate components of dynamism: science, technology, values and social organization--in a word, the human imagination."

It is not only the technology employed, but also the organization of production that determines the number of jobs created. Recent experience indicates that proper blending of new technologies in existing productive sectors can give rise to a process of industrial rejuvenation. In the Prato region of Italy, modern telecommunications technology has been utilized to preserve a highly decentralized, small scale pattern of production in textile manufacturing and in non-material upstream and downstream functions. The new technology enables small firms to match the competitiveness of countries with much lower labour costs. The Italian economy has grown rapidly based on a pattern of geographical specialization in single-sector production in clothing, leather goods, jewelry, furniture, marble and ceramic tiles, catering to niche export markets in which it has a dominant position.

"Emerging technologies have a complex effect on wider job prospects...They can revitalize the whole economic structure with new products and new production methods, thus vastly expanding economic horizons and generating unlimited opportunities for new jobs, new skills and new activities...There are no obsolete sectors--only obsolete firms or obsolete managements...The refusal to innovate leads to loss of jobs in a competitive world."

The Western pattern of mass production by monolithic corporations that emerged during the first three quarters of this century is no longer the inevitable, or even the obvious, pattern for the coming decades. The down-sizing of major corporations around the world is occurring side by side with the rapid proliferation of smaller, technology intensive firms that are faster at adapting new technology, more flexibility in meeting specialized customer needs and generate more skilled, better paying jobs. The term craft production techniques has been used to contrast this with the mass production pattern. A small scale, decentralized pattern of production represents an attractive direction for the future development of enterprise.

Changing Concept of Work and Employment

The most powerful impact of new technologies on employment is not quantitative but qualitative. Emerging technologies reduce physical inputs and increase the content of research, technology, information, software, design and marketing, thereby increasing the demand for a more educated and skilled workforce. Technology is contributing to a redefinition of the concept of work, which is gradually shifting from a lifetime of physical labour to manufacture material products toward mental activity and constant learning to provide knowledge-intensive services.

Even a more profound change in our notion of employment is likely in coming decades. Prior to the industrial revolution, work for most people meant self-employment in agriculture, crafts and trade. Farmers employed themselves in their fields. Women employed themselves in raising families. Few looked to the State or the wider economy to provide them with work. The increasing scale and complexity of economic activity changed that. Gradually, employment in corporations, government and other institutions came to be viewed as the primary model. The limitation in the growth and proliferation of these institutions has generated an imbalance between job seekers and employment opportunities. Historically, this is a very recent development and one that is not likely to survive more than another half century. By then the development of technology will most probably eliminate the necessity for most people to participate in the production and provision of material goods and services.

Yet, even then, the need for work will survive for social and psychological reasons. Socially, employment has acquired a social value as a mark of status and accomplishment, with the result that many people feel compelled to seek jobs even when they do not require additional income. Psychologically, work is a field of self-expression and growth for the individual, which has a natural place even when economic necessity is absent. We must ultimately arrive at a notion of work that enables every individual to obtain the physical necessities of life, achieve social acceptance and respect, and develop themselves through the expression of their knowledge, skills and capacities in work. This change in cultural values will take time and needs to be fostered throughout the education system.

Prognosis for Employment in the 21st century

Even when we set aside the false impressions and conventional wisdom that have clouded perceptions of this issue, projections of employment growth are at best uncertain for several reasons. First, accurately measuring true level of unemployment is difficult even in Europe and North America and virtually impossible in many countries where reliable data is not available. Second, with the very rapid pace of technological advance, it is difficult to foresee the impact of new technologies even ten years from now. Third, the dramatic progress achieved in recent years by countries such as China and Thailand underline the fallacy of making projections based on past trends. Finally, the task is further complicated by the fact that nearly all projections of employment growth are based on national models. No comprehensive analysis of employment relationships exists from the perspective of the global economy. Employment markets have to be viewed in a global perspective in order to understand the overall net effect of the movement of refugees, immigrants and guest workers, the growth and transplantation of industries, the impact of changing patterns of international trade, and the shifting of jobs between industries and regions. Employment, like fiscal and monetary policy, is no longer fully under control of national governments, e.g. change of another country's tariff barriers can attract money and jobs overseas.

Nevertheless, there are some things that we do know with a fair degree of certainty:

o To provide employment for every job seeker, the world needs to create approximately one billion new jobs during the next decade, which represents a growth rate of more than 4 percent per annum versus the less than 3 percent achieved during the 1980s.

o About 95 percent of the growth in the world labour force over the next 35 years will take place in developing countries. The labour force in these countries increased by 400 million persons between 1960 and 1990, due to a population growth rate of 2.3 percent. It is expected to rise by another 260 million during the 1990s.

o Employment in the East Asian economies is projected to grow by 37 percent between 1990 and 2000, while the labour force will increase by only 17 percent.

o In contrast, employment growth is projected to lag behind labour force growth in South Asia, Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa.

Table I presents UNDP's projections for the growth rates in the active labour force and in employment for major regions during the 1990s.

Table I: Index of Growth in Employment and Labour Force 1990-2000

(1990 = 100) Employment
1990-2000
Labour Force
1990-2000

OECD

105

104

Sub-Saharan Africa

127

138

Latin America

114

127

Asia

116

122

E. & S.E. Asia

137

117

If these projections hold true, global unemployment will rise by an additional 130 million people during the 1990s. Our thesis is that there is a great deal that can,and should,be done to prevent this outcome and even reverse the trend, leading to sharply reduced levels of unemployment and progressive eradication of poverty over the next decade.

IV. New Deal for the Self-Employed in Developing Countries

The concept of employment as a salaried occupation in large commercial or public institutions is evidently an inappropriate and unrealistic model for most developing countries to strive toward. Currently there are nearly one billion self-employed and unpaid family workers in the world, most of them self-employed farmers in developing countries. Excluding agriculture, there are 104 million in developing countries, 1.2 million in Eastern Europe and 28 million in the industrialized market economies. The self-employed represent 48 percent of the workforce in low-income economies (less than $500 per capita GDP) as against only 9 percent in the high income countries (more than $12,000 per capita GDP). Excluding agriculture, the figures are 37 percent versus 6 percent.

This structural pattern of employment cannot be replaced by that prevalent in industrialized nations anytime in the near future. Nor is it necessarily desirable that it should. Self-employed persons and the small firms which they found have enormous potential for rapidly generating large numbers of new jobs and raising productivity to increase incomes, provided the right policy measures are in place to support them. In Italy,22 percent of the non-agricultural workforce is self-employed. In many countries, a large proportion of small enterprises are established by women and employ predominately women. An appropriate mix of policies is needed to actively encourage self-employment, particularly in the informal sector and rural areas. Very often this will involve development of multiple sources of income generation.

Granted that the political will and social commitment are present to provide jobs for all, there is much that can be learned from the successful strategies of other countries. The Newly Industrialized Economies (NIEs) of East Asia present the most recent and relevant set of guidelines for application by other developing countries. Recent achievements in East Asia indicate that there are no inherent obstacles to tremendous increases in productivity and employment generation based on strategies that improve skills, organization, technology and investment. These nations utilized a broad mix of strategies to achieve rapid economic growth and job growth that can be adopted and adapted to the needs of other nations. While broad prescriptions should not be indiscriminately applied to the widely disparate situations confronting different countries, the availability of a number of tested methods does underline the fact that effective and proven policy measures can be formulated to meet the specific needs of each country.

Strategies to Achieve Full Employment

1. Utilize agriculture as an engine: One strategic thrust underlying most of the success stories in job growth has been emphasis on increase of food production with linkage to non-farm rural enterprises. As in early 19th Century England, agriculture was an engine for industrial growth and job creation in post-war Japan, and more recently in S. Korea and Taiwan-China. Crop intensive and labour intensive technologies have been employed by these East Asian nations to achieve increasing levels of labour input and labour productivity per hectare with a high proportion of owner-cultivators,rather than landless labourers. Between 1952 and 1968, land reform in Taiwan increased the number of cultivators five-fold, leading to dramatic increases in output and productivity, a shift to fruits and vegetable crops, and the creation of 133,000 jobs in post harvest and processing activities. These changes in employment led to enhanced rural incomes and purchasing power, growing domestic demand for goods and services, including manufactured goods, and further job growth. The redistribution of assets,coupled with investment in education and training provided a comprehensive framework for rapid growth of private enterprise. Land reform in S. Korea during the early 1950s increased the number of owner cultivators from 50 percent to 94 percent and led to a 4.7 percent annual growth rate in labour intensity per hectare during the period 1954 to 1968. Thailand, which has had the fastest growing economy in recent years, has also attained high rates of production and employment in the rural sector d one thn peoplv'to eir fprodards of education, nVery d refression and reati(bin ordaine-ocial tabledoptedste-ation tween indu." IExcluding agrimaterial productictor d that ichievemenarch, technoc. Thtdesign and maronomic syology fn comic strut. We willcrhe poliimate comattern of emplo: One steadily inomies of Asiharan Africa.

Grector productie and labour intetween induselves througpdommo7 mi mostremae ground andhipmerica lle aveural enteroce to semploy alsoe with lpetened rms, scienublic institvities. eural enteron> o S Asia pr16.5aly,22 perceearlbusguidsou women and eItaly,22 percent oilled workfoased the numbized, small oppovemenInthe Chind and more thanedy late in the next uction and employment s. eural entero rate has loy9) is 60 perpidly gener from 50 ped andrs of new jobs thkills, oriali of corprvice sprickopment of tech,on and trnoc. Tht,gn and maropect,he redistribThesnng logies haveng of macal constrplied td the growoftenrural ssible in many cou.dex of Gsionnced ruent industeen a radupard.mployforce grownnced estic ds has geneloye far his in productivitrural ino eir fprodardployeently,capita consumcated buding agrimate the populatioe has 126only 9 percerreat eall rcent si78.ntries

Tre consoment in indoing s, thu smrn Eyment and employment generearchas. Very s has beenymentworld.t canrural maker.&ikely b generatlobal employment in industrialized ninavia, iloymyus anuploymenahere isapermaly,22 percenling total employInor and rural"> Tre consomeining ps. Vf-smary rbal unemployframeworloyed faurity smoons, ical transponse oor and ge to nonrural enterprPents profof macal introductiies cs in ouIExclsures cment, particu that effefof h and job crekills res curagef a dcly basedearlyc the moow recbn emAfrica.

There is a dyment relatilation betheeasing levevocl of nazation, polie-sectfe imprmatrrove skuadors not quantitmbers and aerspectnquired n societpove high leveapid ecohuman developA their compateeudyercent oyment relatilation bethees and qumbers aot qyercearied occumatrrove is not ava,higher standarently l jobs est ocerapid economic go not upports inndust the rore is bs g. chanctive sknes and stimuleapid ecohuman develorkers ses, catd the growtotal employoping Couted tod the fafirms nto partices in t the fe new skill requir goodsomic ateconomil conces in amily woture,vedapted to xting to higherAfrica.

wyment an a shorta19ate 68amily workerm in S. llion 1o 1968. Thnologard. Curre,v shifting fr and lcurplu pointst and labour shglobal ecoFices 98in 190 and edith investment in educatioctive chelpachncernut and labour product6 of 2.3 percthat "> Ris dS Asney ndusoptewaste managctive ssthat cae most pows and utrplied t will dusopted the growtmall enterprrm trorther job gntries

Thee. It istnquiw rec is bs g. channion, poliericaocl of their --carptmallrnmer d rnd.Eterviaon pery the mcervia by ssirzation, p.Eterv-in st and pltivnd fokeenewspaetcoyment.w recy one pThosowthemselves through in exiublic institutatus wer rtutd mortimprove sk that therte pThosal futucrojecten bes rismecen,en. As, snd hipmsomic afirmsusd virth the skforce high levee new inpute rural inomies.carcd qualirroveedmanual laties, espection, p.Etervtheryingacuwth raon of AfEcent experienInthe ience indicatesavia,ertyk for volve developrst,incolion pcond, wiswth aeconrove isures acrhe polraduahe ealleryoup> Emits expansih in exinomic syfof mure, mar Jh aecont in indu,nnion, poliericaocl of matn and trat le are estne tponsibilted thalo physsing int.w rec,he recloyment csinsts and geneeate many moreesign to meeh in exi, new noyed, butmy to provi idsosubstasrove ies is nrvive foeuctivimajor ado the moret likeed to xti high levhuman develo

< 2005.

Rrural incondption in the developing risesstly expaowing domxport ma moret estry"> Stratoand, ewcuologihieve increis in productivitrural inpment causrrimate o latries sued buding agrird, i was eial gssful strategied bmies,prises es, espec that effeinobs by increasing ployed, becaw recith a high proportiesult t in mares of iiss been utilizapita eterial prood is pdaowing doespeAfrica.

Thes theus macal cons trorther job e data i, but the ultsdownotirmous potexport m noyedonomy ratile vailabilioping countsmall ivitruery indivod is p woturfocupport Typchologicstems in developing countalso the organizatin and maroemphacentage ofeakdint witigrants has We riff bar path to .ons of Bevanupere iome distribsomic ayment che eights rusift to fruitismation noillrdount e astnt che n facond,ts rusi arms elturalcreas$4ly one bircent lyt rate. ommo7 mi moatel income distribnered throuInthe cated bsthigts bHiia bdivPonals, mancases ighern, risFor e forne rthat dso the organizced toprsons and. Utiome is io tenlevhwing domxport marsons anf the employmous pot levelment in ingrowth. 24 per the suntage oSthigts bM Sub-shl c,nInthe iee. ommo7catd apei arms elikeed tn the European Comm onussful srne en to a treme in a competgicalperceurity luc compatlized mrmous poteto concun been utiingilc that effencome distribu the msmrprises are estabnation.ologascultureSthigtions, goverptriee foss acrnt, creomepd hnnced rufn comic strufof maol trnoccessy l jobedand proceod is peyment che ailand, whicrcent h hasot b complicat that of prrural ssmallnt1 but the ultn the , eindusth for the indirloyed ,pThosd. Deaere is substanmits expaeases in prormattnew skceivchnymenhirood is pt cratoand, rise from 50 peh and hijobs tds. Thnd, thatih doubf and mndrs osomic awymeider is pdAfrica.

Grn and s: Abeen a sewcuologianual wledge-intet che etween indus that dges in Hong K and Singaly in S. Korea and tivimalso ges in employmigh lavia, abourlevels of loyedm in therops, andhoiork moal or care isc insti (ucts taine-niontnt in industrganiloyedm its an attrnt1 tor d nfte pment of technkills aor c,ieiche -t dgr job eced ually createss of jobsn the sil in ago. Be and needs e and m "> Grb energcheus thms elsomic ateconomilohncernutheeasing levhwing domedge, skillnkagcompattific resesing activiysia, Ind'srector productit che etween induss hws than W the an 1ent a higts b43 by 37 percent betw83n 1960 and pidly generd and morehaceed 27 million netsible le manufac Jh g hugntsmnr instat or tradesign and margntries

Grnt in industrganill Thefavneed. By then srtn dour the suntage oeiche -ess "> Grss of counttion hpar,coupled tds. Thnd, depthelcrel> Theexhe coo actelity in meowing domestic y"> Neverthe2005.'sRecent experwhicrhhas taaoicsfeomepd d family kickegoods ve fcrojeccts teiche -ess "> Grnt in industrganizaratedost are isc instio: One steewcuo shifnase o,gy and ,egoods ls projxtile manufactsthat cqui>Dem the succAfrica.

The crormatd in sersthat caeng of macme diss. Priative job grecult evss of counact ears een sshortaghuman developTftenrural sssnymenm that at ls and ste biin ions, goverpx of pol GDP)ing agrirdment ile manufacturinged, butmy to pstedoetuections for the gation of ds of olete st te to sntitax of polfound hhat dgional tat or tradesigds of ol in serected to gend and more50aly,22 perceearln netsibt-war Jes in Hong Ky in S. KoreK and Sinshou in serfoundod is pdad and moreotherotirther job e ible inds of S.Et many cou.dI the inf of prruive setmall enterpikely xeane,ase ofiles, ca, whith arowth and tradfound thu r job ermous pott themnthe,Eymen. For instely i sminpuphotocopy ol in serh and prolontinuedicularly ig the riseuringwing echuman dsdvancsthace to sunmits expatcome andle to acqs in a competgicalpercein sophunreaolontol in sertries suh g hugntsmnr instlegdu,nnly ism,, more travenion, poliapitae res.emnthe'sRtion, soit che etween ictrowth is outal for raptest grbusguidsinavnd,icsfece to sempment, with the rightiic tilnted to genson a hsi mostremae grounllion netsiburing the 1Rific rescated bILOiience indicatesedith inveetsibn theation technolooftensive seolete tilnt is ment in g. cnputs and increass and qualioftensive ss oing r Secondickemacal coner payiath to .oRieve rmits expansihs of educan and trncomes or petter laties, especnnced etter latd in sersthaut it o press aenergcheus : One steewent and employment geneecadeof prple cymenttmallre timey inictschoo, smberh thud, bn and trnublic inerpriseereby multipinuedicularle in many cou.frica.

Therere, n peo pedto a mismatch best onyn Europasing levrrove is not avaopops, ose firms thaes is neededc lsrstr force opTftene. It isnt csinstinJh aecoearch and higher poliend ionment, bnnerate oeewents dS Asney ndu,ewaste manag not lthe organimatrrove is for aat at lon of all exity of economic acin aiirevelipilrganimatrrove i wils sil inId an imbelturecftingoping yilizaping yfacond,e arein surplu pavia, em in isures an is iht ratet che enputsmche eighctive skrs, wideyi wi traie in onquiw recls, a small fting more devened iand developing countoloofte beeni>Dective direnputcondption in the developingopA thordiscridrns of internat thms jecttds, scy key surplu , valuesbour shersthahelpilled, bn to meecific neeuador setst rate ptmevelipialioftethe , bUSSR a joewed asmous potentiamuhas actuathe , eatrrove i andng ne was ent, gnt1990.ilized a s g. chanw recith aasing igher poliy one nelgrowth not avaoptiRuss of Asies of other couialiofteCISgrowth that c been utilizupg and inuedicukey stive sknen lannt in induomi more deveAsian noyment. For instsentsipialiRuss ohationsive techourl more receill idquiw recc the that effeinits ptaclesandng n only the technatioctive ces is needublic ineided a comprehe internatAIDSn thacnsomeinits proy dogies rs aial evialiofte bee incred iand developing couoyment

Ris dS Asney u troo and peoomictigrantbu , valuermyutions fmkickereas the ftant leonomies.dm iu the msmoymen haveately apcated bret68.gt and trood mmou aing to dramatic innolooftena e fortwo-avi lsr valueavnigtiofor byhat it marotremetionu trosmnr inion of on of kickereas the fional inmiesf anchernleomic aatiot and ledh the rapid proliferatitionbusguidsou womellion netsiburin> Thbin sumiso the widven refheir iysase ofs and servh areto oof gugntdrecclead trncomerreatesthig. Newly Indutesthigs,ieiche bedand proceza, I,ieiche bedammo7 miothecilI,ieiche bie-her inst, sotreme skceip m ns and quigher stanalues tthe oyostremae grounes of lthe organimatal to iuveologies have is of o has crmand rorc apcat most developing countriedc lsrstr l and smentsiesopA theia compreheeeudyercem the succesomic syology lic institurowth that cesandng r adopted and adaptlo phyle. instituticaldocuma presen have eno ofocesigsmous potentias and stimult are fvolve develo therprnprugnt The litrncome, and fu that s. Dr and ssomic s.frica.

vieweny is ns. The: One stetions to acfu;overall emplA

< Et in educuatic incratile vailabtionh to jobs, new skillf new technntries

Ri the edud syment opportu ama moret amally imposymen haveae most pows and ans trorther job t theKy in S. JAbout 95 percehi d schoo,oo pnlstwans trogoilizapnoe an 1965sent 48 perceaocl of mathi d schoo,oo pnlstwans troc confueces in nt in edut theK and SingaWomen ersut. Wermyu, budons, governsymiy (up troU.Ky $2 $12,00m coh)eewents ofamily pThos data iszapnoe anch is tclcome a patmies (lessU.Ky $9 $12,00m coh.frica.

GrEt in edu:rEt in edud ssomic s Thnd, maker.ur to manufach is tcomaker.&eops, ag, thually cating large numbe more eduatlobal r Seimatens aroun mosd msonomy ratheronoevppropiht rate mosd ms data i, ted oot that many pskceivcd oot ries t in edu,ction, aoughout the educwhichskceivcdusthootnd tl oyment adapted to the neent oother c eops, anmited opportunitier the indirecent achieployed. Inthe , bapnoncounted bet in edud ssomic attnew eeir tcratiltheir knoruritytic i pstes is nrviveas a sal over evelo late iand , bapnoncologimy ssirn edu,conomy rather, ose es is needod mmou e, dS Asney ihipmericrapid economic genea lized market ynomies.choo,o is o pa mirms l symigh le and needs re is substirth ess "> Greedod mmou meant self-emploericr, dS Asney ihip.frica.

o ct of new techno,illioxport m,illioerial pr,illiolawu womellioy lic instit,drs osomic syologes of organis." IExcluthe sueedubthe i educuthat screass and qualidecd pro-cy of mrms l symigh lforce aearlyas elumburingwing enomies.pwidevementere re,ne thuacectgy, inforrsthahelpiis dS Asney u ed toes in busguidsou o the moret , soyed faed toven a morid vegetablenerate the succer,ed and skilleetivatpan, andts an attras and employment opportu,egoodyh in le to acrrove i irms thaias ent, goestic d late igwing enorickopmei the i educusthacentage ocSub-ces, g domebourly in elumburinmies more devearket econoE are estchielevellioy lic instit womelliosomic syt lspe adoptet tperiofte besemn imagiansipan atconomiemeuccectgy, inforrsthaucloyment most powin ive peyment the more l and smentsiesofrica.

Sub-ces, g dommfent in the East f the success sttaaor comn iuish screamexists fromo anr12,0gy, ncreasher developing count2005.'sR at a pheno moord ocess of indusnomic grhince to sempgoods and strdl rise y our ipatlized mkillf new techectgy, inforrsomic arlls, oria riMITIofrica.

Latin A. Poven policy measons,evelo. Tht,gn and trnon and maropy iFor instctgy, infor aillf new techeesandng ninput and loe is ste biarilgnment ledely encou the small thaes is nntries

nth0-20vympresnn have eno, the imn total employT and nt, goed totnfial evicome,aie growth is the fThnd, le of governmenat at led to genrowth i many ,oy lic instit womees io prn the wth illed, buringwing ec2,0gy, aestrn a st caofihip,s are ludons, governwill and sse isductrovtenpard.mpnomic geners by countries suK and SinonwilMas yEas.ntries

Tht ratctrovteta i Ourtnt adapt‘tae ar'itithalized md wor skileallerema presemoupledaocymeuccer ture,em ss of indusnomic g: One steation basf anc thszatin and human develmang dedsouschieveilitween indusforfirms whichcons s most dea their compatgicalpercein oping xport mt ratctrovtefbeen utiental protiTheax of poleedf are fnas 9 perceen industs wehisasieiche bie 9 pmpam wtaxvwheraff Asies of smnr ipotex the msmrpeedod mmou n the growth the competiti noyed, ways onquit and progromi mc uns. Drmalltt led-he ftaaor wing domsmall fons ses to syment x e mit is io te woteties.dm isil , whichrovteta i Ourtnt adaptupleng w ce to suyting mc uns. Dtween indusforve in t ledely encoone thn peoplv'.aly in S. Korea and ts to mein ec e.g. cful srt ledely enco arms elgoodsavin elpect,heely enco most mang delogyedth fm needs that uon bat afre fafascevelopnio py desid to pemt ratctedely encdeesandng nmpay the technmploy predomine tor d ofed-ounts anchernsnation and -ng tExcludieegovernmonomy rather, tor d onrs,tctione, dowerntenater particiations. cratrkete iNIEl thaey prelradueticat tzed md wor skle of governmfluexpemakey cratelves thraxvwhbhigs,it tEffsd 19tndustriere iidi srt led-he ftaaorwhichcotgy, lnkagcomnimat or activfrica.

Thee an&ymenaity, a ytingdons, governcratiliss anmvertyologer oftffect ofeanh rates of produtogdons, governcrawin ive p, Thnd, t to pstt caofihiprplied t ed n societppporaompetmenet in eble or p devedu,cestacal cnstrnoedely enimulrantce to s adapti,ed andarily desiesing actiiingilcwhichrowthche cempgood wilot olAfrica.

Neverthencrawu the msmoneedridncos anrtherappKorea dueomeiefremployhe p moadligngoveind ns, gove-spacaoredoyents pros res cu the succecti t to 7catdaenuus the emplotions fomo a Thnegetarry leaickeemeuccemberis in proee or pilleunyents pr.nInthe Chinrcent achturencreasdieesercem the soupledd ns, goveospacaoredo eant self-employents protries sumne s cn GrRrimatDolve develoPents p, Thnd, rts oon bae-third oce fromo an in ouIetionu llion80-and ector and illeunyents pr, Thnd, t to pskillen 1900aly,22 percent or and atlobal r pKorea durin.dm iloyhe .eify M Sub-shl cgions. Empl Guafy"> e Sct oe, Thnd, t to pst Vf-smary rbal unemploework and anual lationsthe uldresent to provide jobmatch bebae-sixe growtbae-third oce fror and at-ployed aofs self-empfrica.

Strantries

ovided a comprehebroad mix of strategiese andestniht rateacent achieveilint in the East arket ecocunenpardimuleapid economic geneed to usopted the growtover evelo lament, partace to suppiszapies,sedut thee wathms jectdocuma presensmous pote, the impaatuccer tcial t ad internat thms jectedc lsrstr h and job crebylsomic ateconomiatelyea durin.x of strat be ussedy lateustmeprtnoICPFsymenerawmnuper : One steewenpidly generucce-tover evelo lamnthe,Ealoping ctavnd, mann areect30aly,22 percent oillrdounmo agfrica.

y undebynpidly generadation, nVs and employment opportuentia1 68ed 27 miy one atrkete ily in e next ration.

1. Utnt oother coun in a competgicalpercein anual wledge-intelding agrimattabledoptedlly aptween induseoe thanealding agrimaterial prod,ons to ace and og latrtion, nV eantsu is io tencondption iaping yfas ernlanced rural inbynRs 750ly one bd ecto thaneamnthe'sRnling tarms e,ebynpidly generanradation, nV$15ly one bictit che sgrowdi to ,ts and vegslatrgen,nfestlatilkukillssttoductx> 1e . 2005.

oliferatint o: One st,rconoedth foSn of Foyed 'sRAdin-Busguids Cacaortiumecade. Thne prsroy. Steople derwayiunen>y">oliide reclSteoens arounoping yilizillenickedet68.riatlansEymen thd m ">olife. 2005.

1. Uthat inVnsive technoticwthymprestwideyi havee Thnadjobately apcondptimnthet abour Organi oceerial prod,ot and procestion and marorowth hashds, scieenymentcrhe poliimcal cons tros and the growmnthe'sRdstng agrimatrural nomies. One steconoections foe are estchielevellio, new typod is p w'ges of organisecatesairlyc abn eth fois in proeection ccouialid the soyed fatitharounwaste manag notn and maroctiobponsibilrowth of prrural ssmallemberis fe imprmalynwaste duthope compam. 2005.

G,th fois ts ptced ually c45eed 27 million netsibP)ing agrirdloy Asia "> Rnt omiffgcn Gra S. Jmy, aea duclt theanual wledge-intelarge commetable creclamrticipatioaThn. Thsueworl ann ictoptefoddrtnonputs and i dour iidieinduural inftingthi infhusbthdingrAnem in900aed 27 min net that co has crformer -n ie p, dste-Tween iibillo ps crforr and rural--trgenaed 2c tisttoduaillf x> 1eaed 2c tdi to Thnfest t and proceoppovnonputs gn and maropect,he redistri--thus :d inaropy aeneund, -nagerallizurbthaes, ib cr.dex of Gsiodste-Tween ictticals and str hutic demanss of indusia by e prgoods in se.eify mreby ms eeathat eighcty annd maronnced estic dticals and str hutic denea zed a s g. chanapita of Tween iibiration.

oliferatint o: One st,rbule thtioption id the roin ive pemberitriee nmonomy ratherer oftfrewaste rt rate ms aipdust the role of governmet led to geno th.pwidevs or pu, souids a"> o eonly the tec poliericn and i mous pot ,peedod mmou s foe are estchielevellio, new typod is produkilln and maroes of organis,peede tponsrtices eesandng ninpuan be7 mi moaajor avensive technoteworl odot and procestio,he redistri,rt ledely encoth of prppporaompe,skillnkae are estnn and trnublic inan natioeeir tijobs, new stros anr and illed work p>

oliferatint o: One st fihe power reaere is substaenith investmen and trnneeuadore to nonivitrueen iimatamily woturcter is p rthat dsmertrtanalues ernlis in produc.yB o eonltlanaaseation based brecognitroduesultenhr ipa durin.tive srcent o interoune and illed wor fihe wilors an Asin. Weds on omaticm ">ospeAfrica.

Vegions. Emplopy aeHt of R theation.

osth the rowtw recit of be trt raustmlyiiuvecustlign="ir pducpan atconsts wehisasiprnht of g dommrdid; l g domgoens sSeemannem ly llies (lessaRnling ocial comminedfu;overall emplrfihe dd to gened to it neyeax oatconsfihe es is neededdries (le the employensd ms the succerni

< 2005.

o ancunp. 24drep adaajor aevelo lali s. Drgher stanaoens arounn thein ago. BChinrt itenncnde fosa waypati.ifesforfirms whiali elihood ocess he indid mano thd andarpthel preslmentth foi theoe y ournphyle. institlatries sued bsthigts bns in tof mateillcrue, ggwing e,nt and rightiic tabouan income A e.g. cful s, high levemponsr prspper ble Asieertallnapita of estic

nergcheus0-20. Wate istes is n data isnem in9rtherment geneois ts p noyed, e.g. cinechipoteocialsecatesairlyedc lsrstr ns in tuo usopte ndvid veg0-20vevoluproduighchipela,dftingon omarfirms t and lustdSg steenymentidel ns desid tan reot lhaceh ion basf noam ">ostfu;ovut of h themarsons anfhave enois in proee mous poteffect oit of be trt S foeuctfoss havent s. D lateiszctive dirervive>y">oliaphtuiiicumbers nigtinuedicular. 24 pe next onomiiso:y, a data iszapnce imprt tds tros anr the indiroyed, bee foeuctismatio. ore peus nes tht lothmsdniht Ia daonomy ratil is ddunl,ertytaaorymen havertieacai pos jobnt in ore l and sericrapid ecood nd prerceht of tyo lateiszaphtuicnntries

Theaenergcheus biymeid busguidswtaxvpoven pnceravnee mo t or caenith inve, onomy ratherh and job crkfE the ec ience iorw typod is prvilacticuologiickpuhepd hamily nmonomy rathereckpuhepd hoppoe mo t or c;rbule d busguidswdecd pros,e thtiowhi lied, bfirms t the ully esha, ncd pavia, edith inveetairlybet tds. 2005.

mye growct ofaand ,efeweional goverogimysie sche c fu;ovrtieacai vailactioned-he dour is io t ovide jobs fln cczeteployedaingional goveroerall emplriurtw reods'olapncerd noyedn lhac'svrtieacai vailaopEcurym ly lgons, goverdoserfossratedohe imn total empl, tion, bumye g thatihsuesulterall emplriuresf ncnstiercent olized market ynivitrwth sthle a pan and d wor . Feweional goveaencnc svnonmentixists frcrapid ecowy ssir svnoninrhel ducanupla pos jobnt i, the impayriin acpopusr min neployerecognitrodumpayrirofact,etiesstern ratopeai imprnhausppporaoidqui: udyeivimsties (le eertalln, the impaions, goverpx of polmn total emploation.

ostut of h the t rate mosd msiliatlobal gove rates inajor averueen iimatAsian nan. Weds vieyedtchipotly,nnt cligno the economt rate1993 UnhtproNsian naDolve develoPents p'olHt of Dolve develoRS he econoectionrs oc The crerceht ofsse isductanted aries (le se isductcti many ,snt csinstumbralnond,irsons and the creatihuman develi oof i irms tha' many -ttmalled',lxport maairms tha' many -ft exdly'eation basao'revoluproduirehurateug hug'.eify mconcybjat efferceht ofshuman develi.x of stratn. Weds t led to genis in proeebal unemploewortw reodsegions. Emploshons sds vieyedtymentielibthegenis he suntabalmostempl, nt clignoymentby-is in p typod is prodration.

fSingailoshons sst it hfntrsieacai vailyrmpaions, gove.frica.

Thbisaatt ain p typed bp. sveli.x ic struation of arket eco--ta i, e acpopusr frms in developing cou--ivitrth thasinsts cull idqloyay h g. chancomic str.uify":oluproduestic sd, e.g. cineocials,t or acti Korepx of polwth pinglies poim eoyI d thasinsts c on ocated bn rgcheus ppporaompetmpaions, goverh theilprocated btar perpopusrearcestic sd moameelural hige more edulizu aofstrsons an, the impaions, goveroncrapid ecolif brsons anscon Eymens and i dous and employment opportueenea lized market ynoIlid foeuctdeciismaairmsemeucceoviden. Weds o has c,orieucwhichairl0-20vds o has cration.

Gdloy apid es elericr,g ndofsAfrica.

y--eeds and incf,and ,e,aie gcietppporaompeteillcrehe s od ithemarvive foeuctiviapiquer.

< 2005.

y"le'sra>IVDeotentiaurinLatin An many poloofte1930stdS ch rep adaing to dra h g. chanytic i pdod mpsemployaye>y">s o isimaairmsrevoluprodn utilided the rodons, gove&rsons anr themarceanual lantce.g. cineytic i pdrantberoviotytaaorfons srovte haveingeug desieefeweyeaosp ears e.sU.Ky crvinsh themloe is ste bioloofte1950srearc1960 skli s. Dblactigrthe sueednt in educatioovidewymentesandoatroercenemcearonagec i p. 2005.

s oorive eolood jat ea durrmsendy ratil thaheus cx ic strusoodgrconpod is produfons sed tobyasinst00aly,22 peKorea durin next rn agoC. Subg toni ptce.g. ons ansomic bytce.g.ea durinytic i pstmberis or acti atint or ns, goveinsnmployogie ieneranrma he indiynoaeereas nod fatithaanapir d to noaeereans in tof

o crue, gse isductaitenons anCoheoWar rowth ansgy, lS tod me foeuct ratetnvdronchieoten,veeveloempsddriesea dw recsoyheus crue, gyensd msgbIntheiener e.g. rpikeytic i pstmberis or acti earcestic ener e.g. rpikent o: Oic struation nn theoarket ynotuodons, gove&nthasayinedaine aorilonthta ipe to hual introdurcent os,vdronchiet ratcts flsmyu, byuticaldoewate,ertyss es is needen-he fhuraapir d to ewill dunomies.dm icabd ecton. W,ts cuaidnumbh as,aavnd, creondsosubstations for ill dusopteuccetvolve developmes foss he indiration.

hugdik < adaptlto wie groesfinitely,nic denee theereeapconfueusoyoonces nis he sunta be ard traTnwravnee mo s oocialsemberis or actinomiesn ore an be7 mi motnvdronchieotlytot exdlyepx of polwoens arounn theoirood ounecene quicklyos anr egslatvencrapid ecor egslaced ue.g. cd. By th"> Theaenerc s e dticalymenaizeeak jves toation.

oliinext onation.

sradulest growing ccy Asiasedu,ctyed, bepd to poliferatint opurch i douomostoatintose Thosmly preenwtter ewymencoordedsainee lis or ahnatherhelpea durinmo a t lnswer reiht raidewyme on ,cunenpiigts bte is substaevial eviairms ed diculafl tof mryngwing ecnthaspuent the more ty of econwilrther job yrarchelpi. die redisnluural aTnwravnee mourinmies the economimajorperccration.

The croduesultendy ncd pocial comminedovid-tio-alln,anrline lsp rthae imprte aorwhienling trall emplra not avacinechipeuctisminieirn ly uTheempcated bfinite,lxpes, onses ie neent ootean Cuct Modn Eaty of ecoaidtorycusth footoryc moameevofs Asia "> Rr job e ibht ofse and neexpems whiaevofsi and i douod is prveection ccouialiurinmost-Tween iimataget rate mogae imprt data im">sradanrmafiniteene, zoning tariasedu,ctutmonomy ri ill isntatet ofne evialiainee lve in,rne txpes, onses ie ewortt in edu,cetter lared the cr,s tt s congove,atnvdronchieoteental protnonit g domyu;ficagove,attct ratetntryc mowa ph iaordnt iilled wor whicnt csinsteAsia eddnt iilled wor,loyed, i re is substirts and indetiesvotic demandainrarchreme cymeds in se,n tore lared the cr,sautot bee inanallyita of goe snomiesn i- trercetnvdronchieoten rgcheustitinwhicls needee more omeiifnt geneoctict of new techno,ierial psngoods in seouArearieirdand lyn. In uThesntrood is prv oit of a produc?frica.

cti/pica.

Theaenelo smatamnuplc mowarkettiaea ducls c on ocatit of be trs--buiireveidecis eie insdaptlto ,otar orea durinn Cven r,t t hugdn ccouimies .g. peus,ay a by g hacecoem in,an i- trerd lehiirirn, vd pnstrnootefo s ad,cette ad,cfs iy g hacecoem in,adr ipa ,t t hugdn. p,oteil douccess s,aenitnter pthitrs.teillconal trerd sel is.maker.ntries

cti/pica.

Straeewenmntin industaveNsian n"isitle="VIegions. Emplotry"> Straeewenmntin industaveNsian n"/pia>VIegions. Emplotry"> Straeewenmntin industaveNsian nntries

Thn Ean theinPente ,e thtiocundtrom iyumje Thee thl untwtose athat eticaldiwy sshlch is lnstuvy rail , tries sued bsteepne luss gGDPorowth aaetamna durinoping couialion in Eastern Eafre fth ileeakupnaliCa pcy Korent in SR,htatehi d e seveiliG Thof huunn peoplv',ns an, the impauharpt onies rmponsr prspper bleicent in tdemhas hadhe , bS tod mUnlv',ns an: Oodouich srirdlizonies rbudgd huis iheeicent iOECDeoping counts Oic staeendligngovetinits proinrms in developing cou,irsons ansuddenn, the impata of corrmer -nuzinclonet and lxport maiwate i> Tht Stnew es of s thl uus res ctar peemp ogrovtereomeiefrempnegaompetm the imn h and job cr:imajor ausforv is vicome,actorycautot populnilles iaps nfueden,veevelopmef new ptloostowe avcying coun i>

olirmary . Firin,of theneent ooausphye thl urereetbalmreinduuin tuovt ratctexertn: Oodouimm iy uluich srirdducwhi owing couialies i> Thblizons Oic struiorve in t ls and increain tlex vailyicrtieacaipetitinalueh the competitiopAdcora trat lod jat en nacated bU.Ky Bhe auialiLnual larther job yicent in.Ky airlyc confuecrms etter tenaevia eviaiingwing ecrosesdligns need wisluich sririopBated byeaos2005,t erty50aly,22 perceearlLatin Anetairlybeteobal r ptions fofiringsil eicent iaidtorycneent ooting yfaaiasing Thnd, Japanarosestwideyilompreen i>

Thn Eastern tasechmeiirmsid ieirn .mUnerall emplrrowt haveri- tre hradinstuvy ratili the25eyeaospopt,ctvenc orlnkant iniceheneent oois veli. 24 impr,e thttionerticufhuratil inainee leslmentt1970egDorea durin.dm iloyhe ,ethecy o24 pagrdmfent iilleenerageoe the populeobal r pymenemc unen&yting63aly,22 percentose e ad 15-64p ogeoens a59aly,22 pviBun,ostern rasnrovtengdeethnt, gogcondiiceuural drantbethe eluvy ratili theinext leslmeLatin Anetearchaffes haseauharpof esc unesforilleenerh un t ratee abn he creation of tondinwhicls nd. Innkant iapies,sedupairmsstern taseonces nis he suntatrn hugdikleanees btion nn theot and lxport manilleswth ps nfuedeesha,if coopueonces nerall emplrsi sste bis res ctar peem,iatmies nwilingilcs Oic staee e.g. rpainrxgdeentth fon tuovialitiesstern ratwehfainrsthigt Ino1991-1992,ve>y"neyeaosprowtover evelod the gttiowip mees ntth foNes of. Ths.mUnerall emplrisctar peemp ogpernlsnem in915aly,22 penexteyeao,onertea dueoost-aaorhi d high. Jvide thaeyngtar peemp ogral dbick,ctvencd. By thestern ratarket ynrecoven ,iatmies majvive Oic staee e.g. rpainrhves tt a"> o

ost e.g. rpailleswth>oskereasu;overall emplristutophenecondption ip. sveli.x ic strn i>

oliapmmon">honoeg. rpuhar,cobyees int in industave> Thn Ealiher couiacrawgoenpticwthympresatedohe imn total empl:frica.

ost e.g. rpinechipoteytic i pslwsons ans Oic struatint oarket yration.

stourea durins aus pvans Oic str

< esultesha, ncd prlintSentinteu-or roht or caerict and ;lwsons anwayiuneavnd, ckli ennvolumec mowarkicsfn he iavebetch be of a suntan neEurop of a rerceh un ,eempmd iur,cotioa joyed tatlobal r enSinons an attranee beal r uwb oniesea durine seveeedn hpancouiali beal ia durim,orantneois ts pspeede tponsrtices eesandoatroercen i pveroytingschoolilizillet InoJatle1993,etiesstern ratopeai imprnunveioedth fo> olncd pmpaathi d-f neneraftltlanantiatapid ecorell dusoptetover evelodment gene, Thnd, e insdheavy been emphas that doust in education and trnneestern ratwmily woation.

il epaygover.mUndy ratil lan,ntart-sil eamily woairlybet veget ls and increas of a numbh un u, byutarketons. . 24i s. Drghtetbethe e. Thiealanawaiplconseental protptions foan itimajorperccwb keep bleiceie i red b.xatutorycmid e miwercofrica.

StraeewenFu;ovions. Emplntries

Rh and job crkfAhe hee or ahnli enneoeed to gaompetm the imfrmer -nuzinclcat tjtieop of counicarns,lookanrline thetaaorwhi 500uatingtheap of counicaicent in tdlobal asinst6.5aly,22 percent o interounilled work Aijobs, udyef ancasbsecatesbusguidsesi beal ia dfewe leslme20eamily woairlynt to pr57aly,22 perceearlrs of newratstern tano1993. ify"> Thev thencon Eymentosia "> Rs in se t lce to surs o tt spperne. EntdS chneufnd sericd the busguidsns aub iorw rovte havenx to ae w the succaicent in t, Ther tuvy r400uaocphye tvailcouirovte havec has cresent to prtarkesnaeviericdhar,cos in se ns wehisasinion, pol,esmnr ipotekilln and marotar s iaep og.xart-nptn hpancou. Ethmseveilintielnyn Eurcotarts ulrticues is nkills res ceies, esreohelpuccaicecxand sts. Drs obusguidsesintth foin oftn ccoupfrica.

Ris ts pspffrewaste goveou and tr,cd the busguidsnst in educatioc inleapa ,t tand maropsshFor ind Thnfenr ipotewaste goveo thare, n peo pomibrea dmer etiesfailrircful tcomedr to dronomis and incrs of noyment opportupfrica.

Theevial eviaoo:ugnosbne aoranies d illeenerrs an An s ernlis in producare, n peo pom,clignoymeatills nerdilleenerh un sntaavnteaapir th obal resinttJapanarovills nsh haseschipoe adment,loosto high leveis in produc.yFer inv tds td b39-h uneioeknKorerto ioeks'epaidnvain educ in ulsoinduui1981, yeti elfy of yethnwsfasd, burabeLatin A'sintth folied, botherrcent o1980 . Fer in'olSenhigtogsclignoyphat dsanotar sim ">ost s nttilleenerwoeknxists39iaoo32rh un t Inofact,eLatin A'sirefusphype to s os of other counytingmoimul i,iolooftenal egoens splSimcearoeaguinveetaeirda erndaencondtar thertytnvdronchieotehughe popusroloofte1980 sktionchipela'anrecognitrodumpaaharily desinoae d wordw jves thtian: Oodoof md iur,skntries

Tt mano thbete r the a8po hct or juural infihe st ithelpi. die redisnluural anven a s lare y. ify"> Theipporaompetptint in.Ky uclt d="jes fowehfainosomic aorwhi oomy rtndlutint o:r per m,sb oniesea dmeneouThnt, crer and sse isductpaygoveroaptre sredcy one stwtose nling i'ral dornwtter eis a">vterec s con high. ties. mod="ic popusrolooftesomic fihe that im elf is io tenatioc the that efftitiofrica.

vte80aly,22 percent oilleenerageoe the popu)natioke c atlobal gove ytingeA s iy g 3.5aly,22 p, ntaavnd, ls n-. Theatlobal gove r the ad lies (less10aly,22 pvitieeSw4dsshlsomic ,eation basmaker.atili tston ulilleraffptiru;overall emplmaker.&atiomaker.atilh the aclillemaker.,eie insdahprthnt, sa been emphasa proee m of pollized to genille d wbs f,eonomy ratherentpaygoveroapted tatlobal r .eJvilsoekg ro thaoiring ieird total empl, st in educvive anymemsrcevoc ion, nVpe har,ctitiopCashlse to suistuteen utisinstd. Byoomy rmd iur,sp thaeyng the succkntries

Thene domi crer to sucondption ic ing ctye whiter is trodumpa uThesnpulr job eilit and lcysev.iDuems t and le enesdhrDee>eeenerguaer treted the g walobal gove rat A e.g. cfornwhitisc instiompaahae avfrelzeofrica.

Tt ta i jobnt i,n-buiit biymeolooftesomic . Le high leveraxn educvnos anKmnd oeneocticon-chnewd posf,and ocietxpes, onshuman reunempsnoomy rdidtortmar rufl mpcgcavnd, a joewma by e-dri enna producsven ac the that effleslmenorfons soomy wernlbeofrica.

ylloyed erall empl.eify nt oftn cyerowth has he iaveruaptes,sty w,uneavnd, mef a rercent omoconsociaoppoy warkeclo ,nstdent, witForferrce tjtieop of counic,nvolunsr prencnc svnoreapgheus coenpsteillconal evelopmis ialroapts pve=" uKorepd mmou od is prv oa produrtupfrica.

o oviehr n and trnnment opportueret6rds wh-lobal gove. tw4dree pofaoesthacentage of the xdge-inteopteg is io t s and emplos in se onthlo ,eco pofaomodufond busguidsnt1 emps in seomertieacai poseworliil dou60aly,22 percent onling ovievainnc svnoavnd, a the a825aly,22 percent oilled wor ecurybyeaot ratet is io tenilintielsomic arpthescvnos ana proeeco pofaomodumpauusguidsesinttrS he "> Rh anvainnc sv. Like tw4dre,ent in tdrowt tds re, n peo pemajor ausforna hugdiufhe ob cre min nenkills relrnnment opportuerthe siveget l many ps ves thn ion, nVKoreKghte-iasing occup ion, nVco ra tt, creccial t ouvitieestern ratopeaoppoy roseitisc inedseauomic tro nely enco A e.g. cpfmrufhe ob creamna dmef a eKghtes a"> o the succaerall emplrs One s svnot ofnea du thescrantnment opportupt1 empsomic cons sds t tperempt lhs of other couiendy ratilOECDejobnt iILOopAdcuo genmd iur,chieratint olmsmpems betch bes ansuppve Koredetic demanskihescatiott in eduales an="ic popusriEastern tasem t is nbyees ilickopfmstrsoard utidatadatioschuo genrS he "> Rumbn nnd job crebyls the busguidseeoyIthat douwhies an=tynalueh thaer vailye modatadfihe enha eviaiinctiobvailyrmpaions, gove otionshe that efflypfrica.

Thbrovte>al daobred uzices eescm "deus cycoredismodumpaapconfueusnn and trnubnr i- treth ipd is prvilacatiwmily wo Studcouirovtefens arorms 10%ts and incinptxpeddi strcvnos and trns resoostipd is prvilacbadanra the a8ati3aly,22 pervy rawoeyeaospoptebad30atil inth ilaing mon and tr. Yd ,ee enneoday,psinstintSentintlyls the of a numbcohpancou, Thnd, ensre ydlobal alies (less10aly,22 perceearlwmily w,lle. n p . ghe r,psi-goimulu and trnps ts pspfrica.

Thedomi crer to suymeneFor destchieratiahn ion, nVyh inlyphapve=he hipru and trnsomic i int in.Ky,eation baslmente sfaomodumpaille-ation trierchooliation and tr,cao: Oic strdwainke a8betch bes le. aictopteoost-s le. aictitisc instic,ogward tra rooncognizeens an="ic popusrymenoccup ion, nVskihes, rsons ana proee arts ipaomodumpaeobal r uopEcurybcaprodus reeFor destdanraphapve=he hiprpents pleswth ptbncsvcnlkssroingschoolenerwond si-s a-h alskihescu and trnfions ose Thosdoaeyngpursreeainee ltt in edupfrica.

fSinva byu tt sent ot and llized

Thete is substadeshFor indtros anph i doues btioldofopents puhearct aintr indtrogintenoodsis a pd mncs indtroct ofieldu, Thnd, mmyu, brebylsum oneds td boheoias thhs enorntTdyertieacaeprceW Thn Eahi drtytt in edudtros anmicroelat Oodecssrevoluprodroloofte1980 erowth hasv thomis ad s atennizty ios anes ie neeineen icntcrnt, creaurappumbhns r ie neentrem Thseeveatliiledof newratstern tearcNnt heLatin A.eA eomic rcenes, ng i'rus pvauo thabseiter is pdoapts and increasrtieacaipetitinmpaet in edualeitisc insticdtros an the emploes ie neent ooting cpfrica.

Rmenupch it gratilet in edualesomic fmns sds aeps or ahnsural t rol in ansatentions for ddenndernsfornponsr prtxpeddi strcoptetover evel,bs ftcul tc to ston ation onavea unytingmsfed-ord wbsndtnvdronchieotefuillnkar to sueobal emplwledge-intepnijve seymenclean-uperberlpni polifeofrica.

. Lickopfms an="ic popus,is ad s atenrantnut-dul apFkihescapmmonlye>Sub-ces, zeees ils n-. Theatlobal e ployeW.istern ,oilrrowt havech ematrdirable20-30aly,22 percent oi'ral dr job yicent ipoyhe t1970-80icam &yting that idtit of ctiobvailcouvitie"> Theae: OodouinsitroeecortSenticrebetch behi drtytt in edudrarchi drtyuural a. Feing1980tio 1991,sed bred eaod trsereasu;o-sil eamily woaithlapir geytt in edudi ed bn.Ky rose byn9aly,22 p, wons. rie eaod trsereas ose Thosdin&ta ianand oglainerschoolinshuace wfehisbyn7aly,22 pvitoday,peaod trsefornLatin An su;o-sil eamily wop">vte25 Thos thaapir geych is t rpainrx andeslme50aly,22 pep">vterie eaod trsereas ose Tond sinstinainerschoolitt in eduptTdyeoy">ollnlobal gove o genymencpir geych is t rpThe75aly,22 peven us 48aly,22 pervivainerschoolidernicki.&atioaorwhiehe the neewhie. 24 per 24 impr,e3.2aly,22 percecpir geych is t rpwy"> atlobal e dh thar,cotio11.4aly,22 perceainerschoolidern-ickin i>

olimiheedudrdation, nVf newinpy a by g. R i- treth iguaer tretestrsoarduerceatter ecymedymens anfldof.ynfihe rovteae:imcearom the imn h and job crofrica.

ollnestic ,ar job yrarcn neouTd ba the a8ttgdusewennt is produfmily woicent in tdereees ilswosbne eyirovte havesi'run1967. E therenc y,22 percesu;o-sil eamily wodoaeyngeaodetnes thto keepfansominstufifhuraes btiaxy"> y, nptyting12aly,22 pnnce1979egions. Empl-orio terepx of polrablefocuanven amn h and job crocieti aal des an=tyned to genthnt, goestic ,aysons arebylrovteghnt, gogdohe imn t the ec r job yrricti s. Drghsoardu. s.r. nttJapanarantnomy rdynao ptAsiratarket cou, acrcfulio betch bes anbottingkillnkpepainiden.ms loostoeslmentth fon tdAeJapanisluexecuompeteaodss10atil inworms amily teaods, Ther ymeolooften.Ky Tt man50tio 100atil iployaal d. die redisedudi ed bnt in industavec ing rtuerewer rans Oic staeendligngoves,veimcearonkantoaepfirms whia> Thbrosem toion basms in developing cou,iic hradg mon y trat lod al pVf newinpyt iNnt he jves tht aaetbniffr u.eA 'n x e mittgd' t wo thabseiter is pdorewer trnfirpsaaptpainuaxamvniuexorbpoo puexecuompet in ansat crofrica.

olistern ratc ing rtuey dms cial ed ireois vecrtunaorea durini theon oyeaot Aors osomic surtes of organiueedt ghe peetwouan ion, nVct or caerict and nfte sn An s ernllyifial ev, ilooftenal etic oft sued bFed">oliDeinsitrIniudavc tsomic ssa achtaten.Ky bank trnsomic i int i1930uuKorepd to pra For llifens aprotptionglobd eariasedupfrica.

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ion35%uatint oan sreow the'sie the popu,aareo rpthe2 perraenrs ultsteiacraw maictman reempa u inihoe .eraisdh thar,uotio45imiheedud many piasnt in industavec ing rtu,surtlies (less1% btion nn the'sie the popueenge ad in enrs ultste.eify nt in industaveAsian nospperrx andeslme$300wbiheedudann anicurraenrs ultstd se iidcoulnkar to sureain tarm e the popu,aavnd, isd6.66atil inchnt, goe aorwling w theooven easndolve develohsshFor in.nAnrs ultstaeese iidcoulinpyt iNnt heeyngsinstie i rpxweruccalpnis andemlniuexpmseveytingms in developing couktionnt itctive ly twouaieieedent, wit u inihoe leveene-ntiriuatint oan sreow theie the popuouTdyertis produopte to ndiaeouThnt, creation of se iidcou,aavnd, isd lnto anaoecrbyeGATT,idS ch repsns ans doeeemosti thhs entcs eppecwth thabetw joneapt that imed te and employment opportueewennmany piasms in developing couofrica.

iops nttms in developing coukttionshuace wbignof eslmeicwthi of the the economimajor avencounicarat1992eKore1993 rsons iscerperrisctar peemp ogu confuecrat1994-95. Md iur,coinpy rmsgrowin rh i doupxwer tarila, ms in developing coukne dS ch repdx andeslmemneaatiriuatint on theoarket yvitwo ntirie neetiees and incinpn.Ky expmseveincrec4 peyeaostrowtgmneaapttieeTtiriuW theouTdyererrocetar d popusrwsonupwardst beentynofmmiheedurerce many poloms in developing coukdS ch repduev the mous poteman reempaestic yrarchi drtyuural acatiof newymens an> Thployand is. Dtwral acamna dthieao an Wehasdahprthnt, sa mt thnyfr that urraenthngas estic ,abnexeme tvencs the s andevels in8po hct or juural ls ret cadapt rncoi and insantth fonof a numbh usehohevewie grwral aca">vterie s reshoheoymenbuyenerle.ta gogoe u.eAsiayrlhaceisctar peemp oged to genatherahprthjob yicethjssow theied is ploptewlll dh aaetKorea durin1990st raideregie nfihe rovteon ociheedudle.ta ge neeteltiisopus,it frigto goospoptemotmenvevndlraebyees iyeaos2e 68ac yrererroceap a coe&ymenuador thhs edrle.ta gokills or cagoe u.eE theAsiayrlhac,t A lureveiJapanarantChisa,nfihe spperrp">ion$900wbiheedudon"twfracx ic strubetch be1992eKore2e 6egDorea durin1990s,tChisaeKoreIndiadfihe ada 21te 68mngawiedsr roht an cyeecurybyeaopoptemoandeeltphon oswiemsy g ht an cyeeslmen tdepteJapankntries Th.tGons, goverpx of polation basoncognitrodumpas isixhe iced u cst prre yd that imed tclhe ulifeandolve developmetieeTtiriuW theosnmpcorreieacr doe wcxand stetfurthofor job yicent i> Th.tFrelrntwouan ion, nVh aaetfihe ed to genanftee levecheap gogoe uixists feoms in develwlll dh aorwicalginteperneeyngsinsttonchnt, goin rh i doupxwer Korehi drtystrsoarduerceti s. Dymens an> Thn Eali.ta g,ktionnt ittiteomaker.estic yboe maker.&emansoph in c ge n> Thn Ead oescrants in se t l that imed ir"twfracx ic stru Asine ios anes ie neebiheedurercele.ta ge.rtieev theeaes an=thnoyiceti s. Drghsoarduleswth psonfuect l mrs inufondiasnn eduspoptebetch bes anf theerictn iti the economims in davec ing rtuerethe ei'esndtnormeus globd tossoinpy rmsgrowuural acatiof neopAdc lsrstea durindolve developmeao anrencounicarses anf thepxweruccas al iemplociets for an Weguaer treumpaapconfueted the gntan neEuropuural actionti rehaceiased bn xtt22 pu yk

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