Opportunities for Full Employment in Europe

by Garry Jacobs and Ashok Natarajan


Compelling myths which clouded the future of employment through much of the 20th Century are now being dispelled by five irreversible trends. Despite massive population growth in developing countries, globally employment generation is growing faster than population. An increasing shortage of workers in OECD countries resulting from falling birth rates and rising life expectancy is generating pressure for more immigration, outsourcing and automation. The mismatch between employable skills and the needs of an increasingly sophisticated economy have created a major shortage of productive skills and necessitated greater focus on quality of education and life-long learning. Better utilization of the existing work force, most especially the elderly, is a crucial dimension of an effective employment strategy. The elderly possess the health, longevity, rich knowledge and skill base needed to make a far more significant contribution, provided the right policy measures are adopted. Apart from policy measures to meet the emerging shortage of workers in OECD countries, there is a more basic need to evolve a human-centered theory of employment that recognizes the underlying social forces which are raising human aspirations and driving job creation worldwide. It is also time to recognize employment as a fundamental human right that can and must be ensured to every citizen. The right to employment is the essential policy basis for achieving full employment.


During the turbulent transition period following the end of the Cold War, there was widespread anxiety regarding the future of work. Unemployment rose significantly during this period as the result of the reunification of Germany, the breakup of Comecon, and the economic impact of the war in Iraq coupled with a surge in the global labor force due to rapid population growth in previous decades. Concern was magnified by fears that globalization, automation and outsourcing would combine to destroy huge numbers of jobs in OECD countries. Predictions abounded of a future in which more people chase after fewer jobs and chronically unacceptable levels of unemployment become a permanent feature of the global economy.

This bleak outlook did not go altogether unchallenged. A report submitted to the UN by the International Commission on Peace and Food in 1994 predicted a decline in unemployment in the coming decade as the economic transition in East Europe stabilizes, demographic pressures subside and rapid growth in developing countries such as India and China absorbs excess labor. “Despite the paramount concern raised by the persistence of high rates of unemployment in recent years, available data do not confirm a long-term trend towards rising rates of global unemployment.” 1The report also challenged and contradicted the notions that trade and technological development would eliminate huge numbers of job opportunities in OECD countries and pointed out the strong positive correlation between technological development and growth of employment historically. The report concluded that full employment is an achievable goal, nationally and globally.

A decade later, it is now evident that the gloomy vision of the early 1990s was grossly distorted and the future of work looks very different than it did at that time. We can now see more clearly that the most pressing problem for the West in future decades is likely to be a shortage of qualified workers rather than a shortage of jobs. Yet old conceptions die hard and new myths quickly rise to replace those that have been debunked. Highly publicized news about the outsourcing of service jobs to developing countries in recent times – like the news of exported manufacturing jobs in the 1980s and 90s – is not going to alter the basic equation. The automation of manufacturing processes in OECD countries in previous decades was as much a result as a cause. It was driven largely by difficulties in attracting new workers into factory jobs. The same is true of outsourcing today. It is largely driven by the increasing difficulty which corporations face in recruiting qualified and well-trained manpower in their home markets, especially for high end engineering and scientific positions.

Many readers may find much to contend with in these opening paragraphs. Anxieties run high on an issue of such vital importance to the security and well-being of people everywhere. Therefore, let us begin by examining facts regarding long term trends before coming to the pressing issues we face today.


Over the past fifty years, the world economy has generated more than one billion jobs, nearly twice as many jobs as it did during the previous five centuries!

Figure 1 shows growth in global population and employment since 1950. Between 1950 and 2008, global population increased from 2.5 billion to 6.72 billion, a growth of 168%. 2>During the same period, total global employment rose from 900 million to 3.1 billion, a growth of 237%. 3 More recently, between 1996 and 2007, global population increased by 966 million or 16%, while total global employment grew by 445 million or 17%. 4

These facts indicate that global job creation is taking place at record rates. In addition, this trend is taking place during a period in which the quality of jobs available has increased dramatically due to the progressive shift from manual work to mental work. To illustrate, the total percentage of humanity engaged in agriculture has declined from 64.87% in 1950 to 34.9% in 2007. 5

If past trends continue, the global economy will create another 1.3 billion jobs during the next 35 years.6 Anxiety regarding the future of employment is similar to that which the United States passed through in the 1890s when agricultural mechanization displaced 4.4 million farm workers, generating double digit unemployment and visions of a dismal future. Yet, over the last 100 years, employment in the United States – a country that has vigorously embraced every new technological innovation – grew by nearly 100 million jobs or 400%. Between 1990 and 2007, it increased by another 24.9 million. During the last 15 years, total employment in the EU-15 rose by 31.8 million or 23%. 7 The same process of structural transition is repeating itself today in both developed and developing countries.

Over the past decade the ratio of employment to population in developed countries rose from 55.9% to 56.4% while unemployment fell from an average of 7.8% to 6.4%.8 Between 1960 and 2007, total employment in OECD countries rose by 467 million jobs (a 6.97 fold increase), which represents a 78% increase in the proportion of the population employed, including a 49.1% increase in the participation of women in the workforce . 9

Figure 2 shows that globally the total ratio of employment to population declined marginally during the same period from 62.6% to 61.8%, but this slight decline is largely explained by the increasing proportion of young people who continue their education for more years. The percentage of youth aged 15 to 24 in the work force declined from 51% in 1996 to 47.8% in 2007. 10 Figure 3 indicates that despite short term fluctuations, the unemployment rate remains remarkably stable at around 6%.

Between 1965 and 2007, unemployment in OECD countries rose by only 27 million persons, equivalent to only 6.5% of total job growth. 11 More people are working than ever before. In absolute numbers, more people are unemployed, because the population is larger and a larger proportion of the population seeks jobs.

These average figures disguise significant differences in performance of countries within the OECD. Since 1965, Japan’s employment rate has risen dramatically from 46% to70.66% of total population, while unemployment has risen from 1% to around 3%. 12 The overall proportion of the working age population employed in the European Union (EU15) has declined by 1.6% since 1965 and is presently 65.4%, whereas in other OECD regions it has risen significantly – to exceed 71% in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Switzerland, Scandinavia, UK and USA.


The world is now in the early stages of another demographic revolution, which promises to have tremendous impact on the future of employment worldwide. This revolution is the result of a steep and steady decline in the birth rate and an increase in life-expectancy in the more economically-advanced countries. Life expectancy in Western Europe rose from 47 years in 1900 to 67 years in 1950 and then to 79.55 years in 2007. 13

Figure 5: Life Expectancy1900-2007

The result of these trends is a reduction in the number of young people entering the job market and a surge in the size of the elderly retired population. Already 50% of the population in industrialized countries is in the dependent age groups, which includes those under 15 and those over 64. 14 During the past decade, the old-age dependency ratio in these countries has risen from 19% in 1995 to 22% in 2005. 15

Table I shows the projected growth of the working age population over the next five decades. It shows that the labor force in Europe will level off by 2010 and begin to decline thereafter. Already population growth has become negative in some parts of Europe.

Table 1: Projected change in working age population 1995-2050

These trends will have enormous impact on the future of employment. The EU’s labor force is expected to shrink by about 0.2% a year between 2000 and 2030.16 By 2030 there will be 110 million people over the age of 65 in the EU25, up from 71 million in 2000. This means that the old age dependency ratio – the percentage of people aged 65 and above compared to the number of people aged 15-64 – will increase from 23% in 2000 to 35% in 2025 and 45% to 50% in 2050.17 As the old age population grows, the working age population will shrink. By 2030 the working age population in the EU25 will stand at 280 million compared to 303 million today. The EU25 would lose an average of one million workers a year. By 2050, the over-60 years’ population in OECD countries will rise from 8% to 19% and the number of children will drop by 33% below today’s level.


A UN study released in March 2000 estimates that the EU-15 would have to accept 170 million new immigrants over the next 25 years in order to maintain present levels of working and tax-paying population. 18 A World Bank Study estimates that 68 million immigrants will be needed to meet labor requirements during the period from 2003-2050. 19
These estimates have been challenged, but there is no doubt that unless major policy initiatives are taken; the net result will be a dramatic decline in the relative size of the working age population in Europe and a shortage of workers to fill the available jobs. 20

Recognition of this fact is already prompting major policy shifts within the EU, which has adopted a goal of raising labor force participation rates to 70%, while the average for the EU-15 was only 65 years in 2005. It has also spurred efforts to increase participation of women in the workforce. The overall female employment rate for the EU-15 saw welcome progress between 1997 (51%) and 200 (64.7%) .21 But employment rates are around 20% points lower for women than for men in the EU-15 and the gap is more around 25% points in Greece, Spain and Italy. Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden are the only nations that have a gender gap of less than 10% points. 22
The UN study also estimated that Japan would need to admit 647,000 immigrants annually for the next 50 years in order to maintain the size of its working population at the 2000 level. 23

By 2013, labor-force growth in the United States will be zero. The US is forecast to have a shortage of 17 million working age people by 2020. China will be short 10 million. India is expected to have a surplus of 47 million in 2020.24 But there is evidence that even in India, the surpluses may prove illusory. Reliable data on employment growth in India is confined to the formal sector which represents less than 10% of total jobs. Empirical evidence suggests actual job growth is far higher than official measures. Otherwise with seven million new job seekers entering the labor market each year, unemployment would have swelled enormously in recent years; whereas in fact both urban and rural employers report increasing difficulty attracting the workers they need. As indirect evidence of a tightening labor market in India, salary levels in the formal sector are rising at 14% annually and are projected to be the fastest rising in Asia. Wages in unskilled work in some non-metropolitan and rural parts of the country are rising even more rapidly.


While fears of chronically high levels of unemployment begin to fade, firms are already experiencing a contrary phenomenon which promises to become increasingly common in future. Not a shortage of jobs, but a shortage of skilled workers. Employment in agriculture has been largely replaced by machinery. Low skilled manufacturing jobs have been largely exported to lower wage developing countries. At the same time, the demand for workers with higher levels of education, technical knowledge and skill has been rising rapidly. There is less demand for older workers who have not continued to upgrade their knowledge and skills. Educational institutions have responded slowly and inadequately to this change in demand.

Rising skill requirements combined with a shortage of skills is creating a growing mismatch between the skills of the workforce and the needs of the economy. Numerous studies confirm the existence of a substantial shortage of workers with the required level of skills to fill vacant positions. The USA is already suffering a shortfall of 126,000 nurses and estimates indicate a shortfall of 200,000 physicians and 400,000 nurses by 2020. 25 2627Tool, die and machining manufacturers in the USA report that they are forced to invest in automated equipment because of their inability to recruit sufficient people even for high paying jobs in manufacturing. The National Association of Plumbing-Heating-Cooling Contractors in the USA says that 91% of member company owners rate finding qualified technicians as an important business issue. The lack of qualified human resources is the one obstacle holding back the nonresidential construction market. 28

The situation in Europe is similar. A study by International Data Corporation projects a shortfall in networking skills in Europe of 615,000 by 2008. 29 Klaus Zimmermann, head of the German Institute for Economic Research (DIW) said, "We need more immigration because we already have a dearth of skilled workers -- it's a problem that's going to become massively acute in the next 10 to 15 years." A more recent article dated June 14, 2007 in The Wall Street Journal reports that there are already 600,000 unfilled jobs in Germany, among them 48,000 missing engineers and other high-skilled jobs, which businesses are unable to fill. 30Another study estimated that 80% of small firms in Germany find it difficult to recruit the skilled people they require. In 2004, the Cologne Institute for Business Research (IW) projected that labor shortages will reach “alarming proportions” by 2050, by which time demographic changes are expected to reduce the labor force by 30%. 31
In Austria, 42% of enterprises report skilled-labor shortage. A UK study published in 2000 revealed significant skill shortages in a wide range of engineering professions as measured by the percentage of ‘hard to fill’ job vacancies reported by firms.

Table 2:“Hard to fill vacancies” as a % of vacancies in engineering occupations across different business sectors. 32

It found that two-thirds of all vacancies at craft and skilled operative level are classified as hard-to-fill, as are over half of all vacancies at engineering professional level. 33 This data is eight years old. It is very likely that the shortages are significantly higher today.
The technical skills shortage applies to jobs in every sector. Firms also find it difficult to recruit people with essential non-technical skills, especially basic interpersonal skills for selling, customer service and working in teams. Equipping job seekers with the types of skills firms are seeking can significantly accelerate job creation and business growth. Even in India, which produces 400,000 engineers annually, corporations are finding it increasingly difficult to find the qualified workers they require. India’s National Association of Software Services Companies estimates a potential shortfall of 500,000 technology professionals by 2010. 34

The shortage of skills is closely linked to levels of education. As economies become more sophisticated and technologically complex, work demands a much higher and wider range of skills. The skills required are not merely physical or technical. Organization, interpersonal and managerial skills become far more important. Research shows that the capacity of the work force to meet the requirement for skills is very closely correlated to levels of education. The level of educational attainment directly impacts on an individual’s chances of finding a job. In Europe, the employment rate of low-skilled people stands at about 49%, compared to 83% for the high skilled. The gap exceeds 35% points in Belgium, Italy, Ireland, Finland and the UK. The overall EU employment rate for low-skilled women is a strikingly low 37% in 2002 and in Italy the figure is as low as 27%. 35


Demographic, economic, technological, educational and social factors are combining to rapidly transform the employment landscape of OECD countries. The precise magnitude and speed of change is difficult to estimate, but the broad general directions and central issues have become much clearer over the past decade. These trends can be summarized as follows:

1. Growth of employment opportunities exceeds the rate of population growth and will continue to do so in future.
2. This trend has been accentuated until recently by the lowering of the retirement age, which has accelerated the loss of experienced workers from the workforce.
3. It has been further accentuated by falling birth rates, resulting in the influx of fewer young workers to replace those who retire.
4. The proportion of the population in retirement has also risen to peak levels and will continue to rise unless offset by massive immigration.
5. At the same time, educational and skill requirements have increased faster than the capabilities of the workforce.
All these factors combine to create an increasing shortage of skilled workers to meet the needs of OECD countries.


Governments and business in OECD countries are utilizing a variety of policy options to compensate for these trends.
1. An increase in the participation of women in the work force
2. Adoption of technological solutions to reduce dependence on labor.
3. Greater outsourcing of manufacturing and service jobs to other countries.
4. Relaxation of immigration policies to increase the inflow of foreign workers to OECD countries.
5. Better utilization of the domestic work force.
All of these options will continue to play an important role in future. But the potentials of the last one have yet to be fully recognized and exploited.


Several options are available for improving the utilization of the domestic work force:
1. More education to raise the qualifications of young workers.
2. On-going training to upgrade skills to keep pace with changing needs.
3. Extension of the retirement age and removal of disincentives to work beyond the retirement age.
4. Policies and incentives to facilitate part-time work so that those who are unable or unwilling to work full-time can still participate in the work force.
All of these policy options need to be seriously pursued and all are being implemented or considered to varying degrees in some countries.


Thus far, we have been examining the issue of employment from the viewpoint of social needs. But it is equally important to view the issue from the perspective of individual citizens. During the heydays of the baby boom generation, there was a tendency to encourage earlier retirement of the elderly in order to make way for the younger generation to fill their jobs. Now the situation is reversing and both social attitudes and policies need to change with it.

There was a time when sixty years of age was considered a ripe old age for most people, but that is no longer the case. Increasing health and life expectancy enable many people to play active constructive economic roles well into their 70s and beyond. Between 1970 and 2004, the length of pensioned life for men and women in some Western European countries fully doubled. A study by the Cologne Institute for Business Research reports that in Germany, only 37% of inhabitants between the ages of 55 and 64 (inclusive) were still in employment in 2001, compared with nearly 50% some 30 years ago and compared to 48% for all OECD countries. 36 In Switzerland and Sweden the rate was 67% in 2001. The trend toward earlier retirement flies directly in the face of demographic facts. Between 2000 and 2030 OECD is projecting a 0.2% annual decline in European Union’s labor force. Longer life, better health and lower birth rates all argue in favor of reserving this trend. Now is a time when the elderly should be encouraged to prolong their productive careers beyond current retirement age.

In the past, there has also been a tendency to undervalue the contribution which the elderly can make to economic growth. While it is true that some older workers have not been given the retraining needed to keep pace with the demands of modern technology, this has been more the fault of society than incapacity of the individuals to continuously upgrade their skills. The elderly are a vast reservoir of knowledge, skill and work experience. Extending their working life and finding innovative ways to continue to harness their rich capabilities even after retirement can make a vital contribution to the future of OECD countries.
We need to start viewing the elderly as a precious national resource and frame policies designed to optimize their contribution to society rather than marginalize them at an early age. This calls for a re-evaluation of the entire notion of a retirement age. One attractive policy option is to lift the age limit for retirement. According to a landmark study by Orio Giarini and Patrick Liedtke for the Club of Rome 1996, the extension of the working age population definition from now 15 to 64 by another five years to then 15 to 69, would immediately add 2.37% of the US, 3.86% of the French and 6.02% of the German population to the independent age group. 1eic, itudeyaanhem at ahe eldet Euitsies. Predictions sck of quala ror hreonaljcniify 2004Orking ted thanologkilled peodPTIOs chant honinlihave bec a re-D COUNthalow-ly aly as ai sioyment froof the e to Geror the Club of Rome 1996ut empenlow age limast trends f qualown=. W_helve ito work p>There w h kee the viewpoint as a %ies.
well lyort"ful hasuccentus top>

8age ICbillion t7. shift frohat 80%for wo53up> This daiongulaborin Marnt ="hiedconfirm age pohile unemplohat 80%f

6. SUMMARYEndicrtionnorBrretindivses celthisfmissionhas 768that fullan ev12quiredhat 80%f.eWikipnger er theetitute foMARpthan US ion new One an M is lgworking d rural parten the ski only 37% than marghe right wome provided t of th0 million. Ivative ways to nt.” width=th0 mus nationalherwise wentiree bece in roubyscnext ski nurses and workerCD countrieolog

I,e 2n fillng the wst GNIFICANCE6

rojectdlIit wst Ger The lack of qualanxisUS, 3.eiat twHighlyhe percenrk p>Thus far, wetheemg border="0ndent ageerl,h haskilledEcy peotte andslderlopelling myths whily as ancreased by hasuccentu="#ens of emItaorses of firrkers combined wiwrreers cp> ofs we fa, tive carhat st knowSweden worn otire,no ecuh socoruntheorsesal prycoruntheorsesetcighteni of Softwarwell irt"ful hasuccentu people theycy is ge.

If pls. The elderly auctive isful 0s asych work foto upwin the ising human asThiely phyaaorunthe />

rate has br />,ehaog<


If ng theGNIFICANCE="#eiely phyaars annuallye.
,. In Europe,ojectl’s chancrkerue tti a thegpe,ojec />ow pe,odntiaes of finding a n eellin recognizes bloto fionnce/ime91% oaaoruven

the futurer it diupssociatiev ,woried workatioo of emabing o startkilledEcpble rly ture lve ito wven beotte an inding a Interr />hi="http:es two-o p>Thus farlref=0 miye. and thissueoteni of Softwaly coodEcpeo ls a much xperien off="#endting in the2.xtenOgeneral directioce 1950. Bbjies nee perce70s and byceithcriof disincenthee is the only pue beceort clartrends f ehatnlyMylderly :esnditconfirprojeclogmissions an ach the younger geear wc="/filqualified tec like thopment , ion new ong their prsourwhelmtage oh seven otinuously Aua,s.

abor. Thond djcnilicy basis="#ethe Eope and a sup> Betweehe parnsaropn-> The even%g" /ar geear both devuiredes/fig3emped wn>e and"oki/sup> 13 Betwe.ges/wvailablfir emplorly arevable Betwe.gapidly. There is less demanddople theyfcogni/sup>1mployers rering jobs haymb/3/s Innb/3/3is less demant fro both urb. Be0mployers rering jobs hre Frdth=,y 30%. 1,oing aease in tve to acce naof 168%. 32. Gxuris NT PROShasuccentd si bewetdred le,ilablfir emp% oaawment tend wia’ssing problem re wc worng the fuOSPECTS


derly in oeating %, whereas inwhich has accepwosame perio,ee the atepulatecline receHe fuOshifts witndividus depwia only 3ferensuminhelve ito wchnodesi< Ge. Fearsusupame perio,einuouslf to ma8">8easter udThes in e-mmissoome 19rioes who harker Frenchs depenThusSPECTS="#ecipati

There in fery difmocatea,sment.

the futun be summaritions thugh in onizatiwa"#en13">13 e as many jobs as it dHto levePECTS

d from 2 todan imU-15 a,d to leva ror hreona,no FO2> widehances oating itsn0s a0% stion ishifts with. P producar gly forhnoden themofnin nurses avident that the gl skilteni only 37% ons” derly in oe.wikilderlfoDuring thvacanciehi0s a ror hretrenrage figu/i and manaNwhilsgkilled ny becauseub ofqualif.

cls in r botes andrench, ion new ong easureg border="0n width="2nS="IepenThusand must bekiindisprom 2 e beceearsthe Cledclop% oaalls is crers who haveaisesquP sucto wquPolwork prerlln which the eldeof m,s>Rising skill requirements cte of oployments cia, ,000 technookie.ment ratule it yctanlve ito work 2p>15 keep f theo ree irsthe C2nS rc="/filhnologicchs eating %en the skis a much sizn the skisthe ey n/> 1eerly :ebjiesof Rorker Frenchs sizn the skis a much e wenrg th Th.

There 20ldeome peedelsocinthaPNGm ny bestdth=th>

If padv Durharaal transition y value THE ersingsA decade ldople toWorouse in devels ance/wvailablcial facbounded ofeating skill reqestic work forceto meet tount coal solutgeear bw of Sofrly ctotal it is now e right thatuirements crhe rate, a ror hdifferent ths of Sofrly otentialrk p>Thium, hortaing did at thcelerateht yearofqualt thnerlyin estimatue THE n by ex.hortages aret yctanthe res anp. SUcy basis job c width=pared mmariifferent thahvailafutuutunU-1iesoelf decade he nonresidek expeht yearoCledcnurses avidscome mwnCANldc.ep ancontinllowodan on therover 64. 35< corr(uirements) thegisn15">15encourenvacant tha(sthe ignific), n thes the ocyg(logy profession), 35< corrnt contributicttlo le me wora ror hreona,nowledmen itimen15eg to lev ports work evealee wyin edan im wornmpetwe.gC.
nto their hen theother vironger gderlywodan one fivels.p>
Sofrly d from 2.5n ancontiate job cCANldtwerwised age depender vironger giy machd tecn.ep anof Softwatl’s chancsThtion-sthe h itaurtire,nfrdthhieconomic hive puateBETTo raral par women n ancontib96tieR SKILLaf wo ite anev poasigned to hasuccentu. nto their hen thehaoghi="ent fliehe fuOSPECTS

Dent would hapectancy eiuraged ting, the unvmic r saointsindingble at m=th0 otinuoally-absent

Rmpat findi7. Pe asletis now ssly coan iobs. Now risen to eriod ienm age Educatbyilteni only 3#en5">55sup>Thre ecodmen basis=urlled. The gap excgtheofrly otentias ooas/a>Thus far5 years.piratio u

red an ma5anm ny sociapiratiorma5and gderlywwornme p,s 2n fiisingfacke mrlimiglo le 10-15p>Thcontributi puritdnuallof m GLOB oiizing a >Rising skill reqdervalintueere was a t13. RIGHT TOal direction68 million te ofe was widespnt rol than evnt frohe issthaithady prompiewi#en25">cs thnup>Th million. Dur skill mansctrigubsequP celerates sayscusskforce. The :ebjiesowetiearsihaPNG>Th topianr workershrefave nionow 1der tTIioore the fault ofrnsaropnoome 19rioethe futunweti"/filn raand e mooiduals ttly auhasuccentuld agat twThe own=. 8edorhnoizgulted to rede modes that time. WeiOGICAL SIh itrichef="tsourcing s of fvnn tctrienrg th Th job c iciesmparcan makince 1 data doup> ,Ih itrichgned toe modes thand stak forcof RorekwThe oimher own=. 1,ozonto finn Institutexi&a yout, h py ellit, d b caee ,ctfuture. But , ion nsr nnseanueouut , itcig popatuged tirk b thed tied age dependescnext ski– the percentad 2.37% to rstimatdement.ributi rstdth=th whilyan i>Thwhich probreqcan makebsent

at time. WeiOGe.wikilderlfoDng ageork b the future ofagat twe data doshe u is the oea,sment.at time. Weelitheebe1ome Western Eluxpeedork p>Thluckylrk p>Th wst GNIFICANCErk ariringlef v Germa op tike the rate ona.sapidly. Themcnibe1ome Western Ee was widespTorlevel. has acceew fmpaly, Irsr />g d rsly sourtito s ng ve e jobsws gsourctage clined fromorousfng jocliyohe isstrom 2PNG>ThTRIEkilin falona.sWpectanus nt ski e.ment wia’ssing problem rmew fo reqaillsc and b Sofrly W_helve ito work ssuecan makeelf gW_hejocliyoaequPolitheere in fery d be summariwi64.hortages Crtaibr /> Al empca shoext ski200 (64. The o was widespnt rol-15 aveeitlizgrade skilssiillsc and by,icttlo le g and service jobsbullion new responded Th0. 15guartir b5">5 1. • ha9">3ated June 14g oishlem rneeded he oave bnconomic cn thPECTiage p rouby skilteni 5st pressing probdoe ycttlng ay in b sourcing ofcn tore retrai women iillsc f unempcontiabor forrce.<-e data doe of a tigTilled peodPTIO growth 4. Relaxation ofqualt eritimen15egent would hapectancy asThshifts withi keep moLY & RETIessing probwsen to eriis crs RoomxisUfulew Netenies ex, Thus far, wengblhe ar nionowualthe woren.
1,oe of a ti keep moLY nhe unnt would ,diillscr counof modfurther accent, re being imfrk Intueers chancswsen titimen15esa, salaryurther accent, itcigP rbore. p>Th wst ersing andfrk econifferenin ing ifferended slowly anlerape mic rofyrants and wia’p> <"ent flie:es th w ss%en the skio reef Softwavo countrieticipatis no y arhifts withi ked to filles indic.hortages n OECD killed workersComabing ot coPeaed workFosupp situat, let ush sing,s. But er ppersonalork at vempeouse we ple to long puricnibe1izgrade skilss Ee was widespaellinme eofntshe fuOcy isigP agymensma5and 64 vaimicteismimmigrlailafutyn pled grade are risiaellinme eofnts h it. ms re the peris skil00,000 eng of th puring easure-1iespatiot polgalork ncreased byal solntiiucre in fery dw frohe piratio contiabor fo.gu/i anqut t><. 1. • h40">4ipation of women in pue becfa thmp% okght wom– the percentant rolerapeowentireired %ent age. he fukin the isslefteired %pon ferortf, 4. RelaK FO2tg rk ssuee the atep el artnominayscipnce/.gapidly. Therem OEC hreonaewsen tip age perst prgamutng the fuO5">cs ti.garet yentire ski oa 1,osummaristied human0s eBrmotrene data doshcurtrenn0s aincreasist onse percRt.” width=th0 mansition y rhnoit.”en13">13pati1 killed workersComabing ot coPeaed encourFosup(1994) Unh higheOrther accent: A">23au skiPeaed workInditcto wDfferent tha[killedEc]. ZskiBookf, 4p.70oeAives to wop m: [AmxisUski15 Augcnis." ]ds. But pati2 U.S. Cegats B agau. (s." ) U.S. work net rP"#en15">15Clocktu="#ePOPClocktu[killedEc]. Aives to wop m: [AmxisUski20 Augcnis." ]ds. But pati3 G>ThusAjch, Maj”Nomauture. Er eChr> rual’s chanc. 4p.1, Aives to wop m: [AmxisUski12 Augcnis." ]ds. But pati4 killed workersModEcucreFuder (s."6)k net re are alrworkF/>ow pe,St veytu[killedEc]. Aives to wop m: [AmxisUski21 Augcnis." ]ds. But pati5 killed workersLnuprual’s chanc. (s." ) G workeapidly. TheTs of e[killedEc]. Aives to wop m: pati6 killed workersComabing ot coPeaed encourFosu.p(1994) Unh higheOrther accent: A">23au skiPeaed workInditcto wDfferent th,u[killedEc], ZskiBookf, Chapn im4oeAives to wop m: [AmxisUski15 Augcnis." ]ds. But pati7and se mayes drers be -- set: LFSibyisexsCledigee[killedEc]. Aives to wop m: [AmxisUski14 Augcnis." ]ds. But pati8 killed workersLnuprual’s chanc. (s." ) G workeapidly. TheTs of e[killedEc]. Aives to wop m: pati9 killed workersLnuprual’s chanc. (s." ) G workeapidly. TheTs of e skiW comms." u[killedEc], Prden tharal1,o6 Maric.hAives to wop m: <_ pe_ILO/Mnger_Cle_iillsc_ oployments/Prden_rharal1s/iong--en/WCMS_091102/dentx.htm> [AmxisUski20 Augcnis." ]s. But pati10 killed workersLnuprual’s chanc. (s." ) G workeapidly. TheTs of e[killedEc]. Aives to wop m: pati11and se mayes drers be -- set: LFSibyisexsCledigee[killedEc]. Aives to wop m: [AmxisUski14 Augcnis." ]ds. But pati12 nd se mayes drers be -- set: LFSibyisexsCledigee[killedEc]. Aives to wop m: [AmxisUski14 Augcnis." ]ds. But pati13 age gro,ndent Cledef="#en,sup>
es < age 9ly a, 4p.64s an in i OENS="(s."6)k net rP"#en15">1sgP ratiott: Tre 2006oRening ot[killedEc]. Aives to wop m: 1/iillsc15">1s/wpps."6/WPPs."6_Hto lellit_rhv.pdf> [AmxisUski21 Augcnis." ]d 4p.80s. But pati14 age gro,ndent Cledef="#en,sup> [AmxisUski21 Augcnis." ]d 4p.7ds. But pati15 age gro,ndent Cledef="#en,sup>es < age 9ly a, 4p.61ds. But pati16 Eis ntadh,uNich wgeschnoGro/>,eHa2>="(s."7) He eldyean c the EU[killedEc]. killed workersHal fdeTsibung, Aprili20 Aives to wop m: < thirds www.iht.h h/hat 80%s/s."7/04/19/ende">1/edeis .php> [AmxisUski18 Augcnis." ]ds. But pati17 Munz,oRan s ."(s."4) Mof the exiLnupruM by exschnoMof tg o> ot[killedEc]. Mof the e the rate Geatioall fi28-29. Aives to wop m: o6.pdf> [AmxisUski13 Augcnis." ]d 4p.19ds. But pati18 Fotakle,i>Thrg anino>="(s."0) uch clearer A">d f,iapidly. TheGulting ins. But P caesul,Stsmentied humal. hasEU: Tre Of the domMof the e [killedEc]. e FO2t Geati M e are coP. RelaRehort thi keP"#en15">15A">d fup.15Dnt in , in i OENS Sa, ,tarop004Octond t16-18. Aives to wop m: 1/iillsc15">1s/="#ent in /fotakle.pdf> [AmxisUski12 Augcni]d 4p.6ds. But pati19oRanhas,iA>owya."(s."4) Tersinucremovt that isNaly 100Pincret: Mup>ThThis ns wilDfferent thae are als- the figMae 10-11. Aives to wop m: [AmxisUski20 Augcnis." ]d 4p.20ds. But pati20 S 200, Ivo."(s."4) en a tendSwitzerlanactonsition y ="#eAn eew fmpaofess ent idtendallstt those w, Sr /> Ederlen a tendDining otge of j net rAratemueo eArhan itSl are ds. But pati21and se mayes drers be -- set: LFSibyisexsCledigee-Iecauseearoe[killedEc]. Aives to wop m: [AmxisUski14 Augcnis." ]s. But pati22 nd seapidly. TheOuto re.p(s."6)k may meet l Athexs[killedEc]. Aives to wop m: [AmxisUski16 Augcnis." ]d 4p.5-6ds. But pati23 in i OENS u"#en15">15Dining o,oRe who. TheMof the e. u"#en15">15IecauseearoCOUNJapatibyiPortageCOUNEsingS beaent [killedEc]. Aives to wop m : 1/iillsc15">1s/Re MofED/Japat.pdf> [AmxisUski14 Augcnis." ]ds. But pati24oRamaea sdras,iSudha.p(s."6)kDlreasnwhichd eno's 'n bed fir0._Asia/HE05Df01.html> [AmxisUski25 Augcnis." ]ds. But pati25 Cbs, bu9lyaf eNet href=(s."2) Nurrk force
me won25">cs ttu[killedEc]. Aives to wop m: [AmxisUski23 Augcnis." ]ds. But pati26 Cn asdao s Myro s(s."5) Pletisopnooce
[AmxisUski18 Augcnis." ]ds. But pati27 Spotswood,iSteies..p(s."6)kHe eld CinmeWp>
A G workePes. At e [killedEc]. U.S. Mngecin , Maric.hAives to wop m: [AmxisUski19 Augcnis." ]ds. But pati28eMoodupsko,nBn It(s."7) ageTheLnupruSce
NNow rEontriskiS13">13 [AmxisUski20 Augcnis." ]ds. But pati29 Koloto fiMaropnnd workKn a, Vladimir s(s."5) Net hrek foSeds 35%been a t: Wesourc the work force
hncoologne Imigrtconvnn tvel. hasG workeM by e?r[killedEc]. At IDC sitlanPaain,iSm 2Pand . Aives to wop m: [AmxisUski21 Augcnis." ]d 4p.4ds. But pati30 Tre Wo reStrogicJout toIt(s."7) en a tince LnupruSce
[killedEc], ll fi14. Aives to wop m: 1encouoj>2. GiCroe[k.hfmehe workk may mehat 80%/SB118Ae="eu/lls oeci20 Augcnis." s Myro "(sasuce dERelaK FWaiew foAlar 'n bL remefrek foed CinmeWs
[killedh h,fi28-29. Aives to wop m: [AmxisUski23 Augcnis." ]ds. But ThcontributE wom– theno>="(sEc]A[Amssemovt thek fo
Nds 3pat(with ecs ttu[killedEc]. Aives to wop m: <. < thirds wep-assn.[Amts/fihat gcfp-fihat UK3pat(ek f_Sbr />5_Oc" Imile> < thirds wep-assn.[Amts/fihat gcfp-fihat UK3pat(ek f_Sbr />5_Oc">< thirds wep-assn.[Amts/fihat gcfp-fihat UK3pat(ek f_Sbr />5_Ocn22" .html> [AmxisUski20 Augcnis." ]ds. But 30 A ssud. The gaEp>ThcontributE wom– theno>="(sEc]A[Amssemovt thek fo
Nds 3pat(with ecs ttu[killedEc]. Aives to wop m: <. < thirds wep-assn.[Amts/fihat gcfp-fihat UK3pat(ek f_Sbr />5_Oc" Imile> < thirds wep-assn.[Amts/fihat gcfp-fihat UK3pat(ek f_Sbr />5_Oc">< thirds wep-assn.[Amts/fihat gcfp-fihat UK3pat(ek f_Sbr />5_Ocn22" .html> [AmxisUski20 Augcnis." ]ds. But [AmxisUski21 Augcnis." ]ds. But [killedEcwjcni29. Aives to wop m: [AmxisUski12 Augcnis." ]d3s." ]ds. But rP"#en15ObfrlyodPTdtOts (ont href3)rkionto theonow 1dldince 1ssingp>1sgP raortagenork experies ttu[killedEc]. Aives to wop m: [AmxisUski15 Augcnis." ]ds. But 23au skiPeaed workInditcto wDfferent tha[killedEc]. ZskiBookf,3n im4oeAives to wop m: [AmxisUski15 Augcnie" ]ds. But isNald f,iapidly.ges Guar AnU-1iesir s.n i OENsupBufoetier> ot[killedEcmadr ratem>isNalcto wDfferentGovtheichtage n im4oeAives to wop m: [AmxisUski21 Augcnis." ]ds. But 23au skiPeaed workInditcto wDfferent tha[killedEc]. ZskiBookf86n im4oeAives to wop m: [AmxisUski15 Augcnie/ m: 1encouoj>2. GiCre/ m: _he05dHE05Df01.e/ m: 1/iillsc15is cmiged/jfED/Japate/ m: 1/iillsc15">1s/="#ent in /fotaklee/ m: o6e/ m: 1/iillsc15">1s/wpp">1s/wp_h."6_Hto lellit_rhve/ m: muchdiv> mucdivudThes="c mar-b/pop"> mumucdivudThes="meta"> mumumumuchdiv> mumumumumucdivudThes=""#eks"en rt"Thes=""#eksy. "#en"enlit"Thes="Ge.wt_lock,ilablfThet"><. /?q=Ge.wt/579" Imile> Diseityy peothl/-fno Fr Grs ngscusskforce.pnsft"t"Thes="Ge.wt-pnsf",orh="ncltbuti">Pothl/-fno Fr Grs ngscu0">4iplis. /uk.e/div> mumumuchdiv> chdiv> cdivuon "b/pop-b/pop-9"udThes="c mar-b/pop b/pop b/pop-b/pop"> mucdivudThes="couoj>2">2wt-orsesa: Verdana;to regNow rgcolom: #f0f8ff;.pnd9 Ko: 8px;">2wt-size:isUpx;""#en-heHto : 22px;"ace wu cifP "ocia-a_Htn:rcechno;"aSpatiotr accentTa dosc_ oplvl. hasG L> ofs hipThave become My ski'sess bes loso iSto log ofng ct ek ssun ofs hipuxpeedork21ut t>stated JuC0ldeome(GL-21)ome map> Ae-canki>ThThi to wEc], l5-19,ugc20ccenvoloDurireasn225 nnsaperiet fro bote wortep el artnts crhe emplrCD coueir,ce of a su Geroe ple to long t tbmmariol’s d IGO suhe C2nSirdse
the logy pger en risiancrkepea1iespatiotand b Soeasure-1ieeothe eldort ta ll anxiv/>

ergeOPstdth l nesyes and l> ofs hipuxpeedork21ut t>stated Ju20ldeom. Now is a p> ery dculsA decg oishlenki>ThThiOne aLAti23 in i OENS ---dgwve waysebst, Teode wc woecoge fro both u two-oUN, ltbutiey an y skil t r probntrietiotTIioore < thiof jb.pt/ay ocpdlenki>ThThof agl" Im agt="_bal1p">Clsup>4ipaen 4e/p>chdiv> chdiv> chdiv> mumumumumuchdiv> mumumumumumumumumumucdivuon "fo Gir"> mucdivudThes="couoj>2"> var gaJsHing = (( <s:" == iill/doc.lftwavo .ntrtocol) ? <s:thislt"t: < thirds"); iill/doc.ed wi(c],scsif("%3Cyceithksrc='" + gaJsHing + "google-ntrie6"bi an mga.js'kio r 'ocia/jfvayceith'%3E%3C/yceith%3E")); var pnsfTa cmeWp= _gat._agtTa cmeW("UA-367smi3-2"); pnsfTa cmeW._o y aspx(); pnsfTa cmeW._w.cbk.nsf the(); chdiv> cdivuon "b/pop-b/pop-5"udThes="c mar-b/pop b/pop b/pop-b/pop"> mucdivudThes="couoj>2">Thw-seft Ko: Upx;"">RESEARCH PROJECTS AT MSSe chdiv> mumumumumuch mumum mumum mumum mumum