Prosperity 2000 - Strategy to Generate 100 Million Jobs in India


 

Prosperity 2000

Strategy to Generate 100 Million Jobs in India through Accelerated Development of Commercial Agriculture and Agro-based Industries

Report submitted for the International Commission on Peace and Security and to the PM of India by

Dr. G. Rangaswami
Formerly Chairman, The Mother’s Service Society Research Council and Vice Chancellor of the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University

Mr. Garry Jacobs
Member Secretary, International Commission on Peace and Security

October 2, 1991

 

Preface

Food security was a great challenge before our country in the fifties and sixties. Thanks to the hard work of our farmers and scientists and to the package of services and public policies introduced by Central and State governments, we have by and large succeeded in building a satisfactory food security system at the national level. The Challenge now is the development of a sustainable nutrition security system at the household level. Household nutrition involves physical and economic access to balanced diets and safe drinking water for the children, women and men of every family. This goal can be achieved only through an accelerated programme of employment and income generation and through education. The challenge of creating more skilled jobs in the country can be met in the short term by using the underutilized opportunities in the farm sector.

I have submitted a plan to the Prime Minister for creating 100 million jobs in the rural sector by the year 2000 A.D. by giving an employment and income generation orientation for crop husbandry, animal husbandry, agro-forestry, fisheries, agro-processing and agro-based industry sectors during the Eight Plan. The Plan, drawn up with the help of a team led by Dr. Rangaswami, former adviser to the Planning Commission, focusses on the vast and underutilized potential in food-crops, oilseeds, cotton, sugarcane, horticulture., sericulture, dairy development, poultry, agriculture and agro-forestry and adumbrates concrete schemes for exploiting this huge potential.

In this context, it is essential to evolve a plan for maximizing use of land and increase its productivity by adopting multi-disciplinary approach in the areas of agriculture, horticulture, soil conservation, etc. Training in the reclamation of land and land use patterns becomes important for teams of functionaries and farmers.

While diversifying the farm sector to promote employment opportunities, we will have to identify thrust areas such as agriculture, sericulture, aquaculture, poultry, dairy and forestry;evolve appropriate processing and preserving methods for the produce;and develop post-harvest technology and communication facilities for transporting it to markets. In this regard, establishment of a proper linkage between the industrial and agricultural sectors to produce agricultural equipment or tools becomes essential.

Internationally, if the industrialized countries abolish the high subsidies they are currently giving to their farmers, our products raised on Gandhiji's principle of "production by masses" will become highly cost-competitive. Decentralised production supported by a few key centralised services, preferably operated by educated youth belonging to landless labour families, can help to improve the efficiency of productive and post harvest technologies, in addition to providing employment to persons who will otherwise migrate to towns and cities.

In order to convert this vision into reality, the Government of India has decided to establish a Small Farmers Agri-Business Consortium (SFAC) as an autonomous corporate body to support innovative income and employment generating schemes. The major goal of SFAC will be to promote enterprises which help optimise the benefits of the natural and human endowments in the identified project areas on an ecologically sustainable basis. The projects will have a built-in bias towards the economically and socially disadvantaged sections of the rural population.

The Planning Commission is developing the detailed project proposals, containing a portfolio of well-defined tasks together with implementation mechanisms, a task which will need the support of all the experts in the area of rural development and micro-level planning.

C. SUBRAMANIAM

 

NOTE ABOUT THE PROSPERITY 2000 REPORT

In 1988 soon after Mikhail Gorbachev launched his revolutionary program in the USSR and the international initiatives that have since resulted in the collapse of the Iron Curtain and the end of the Cold War, the International Commission on Peace and Food (ICPF) was established by a group of concerned scientists and professionals from twenty nations under the chairmanship of Dr. M.S. Swaminathan of India. ICPF's objective is to capitalize on the uncommon opportunities created by rapid and radical changes in the international environment to redirect humanity's efforts and precious resources to accelerate development at the national and international level.

In 1991, the Commission undertook a country study of India with the objective of evolving strategies to eradicate poverty and employemnt. The study was supported by grants from IDRC of Canada and The Mother's Service Society of Pondicherry. The exciting conclusions of the study, which are summarized in this volume, present a strategy to generate 100 million new jobs in India by the year 2000. The essence of the approach utlizes India's competitive advantage in commercial agriculture and agro-industry as an engine to propel rapid grwoth in incomes and employment opportunities throughout the economy.

The study team was headed by Dr. G. Rangaswami, former Vice-Chancellor of the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Adviser (Agriculture) to the Union Planning Commission and to the Commonwealth Secretariat. The report is based on a series of ten sector studies prepared by Dr. Rangaswami, which form a separate document entitled, "Potentials for Increasing Agricultural Productivity in India, Volume II." Dr. S.P. Gupta and Mr. N.C Verma of the Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations provided important analysis of overall employment requirements for the country.

The findings of the study were examined and enthusiastically endorsed at an international meeting of ICPF members conducted in Madras during October 1991. Subsequently the report was examined by an expert group composed of Mr. C. Subramaniam, Dr. M.S. Swaminathan, and Dr. V. Kurien and then presented to a larger group of experts at a two-day meeting organised by the Institute of Rural Management at Anand, Gujarat. Both groups supported the findings of the report and recommended immediate steps to implement the strategy.

During December 1991, and January 1992, a series of meetings were called by the Prime Minister, Mr. P.V. Narasimha Rao, and Mr. Pranab Mukherjee, Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission of concerned ministries. In February 1992, the Government formally decided to adopt the strategy and incorporate it in India's 8th Five Year Plan. A special provision was also included in the Union Finance Minister's 1992 budget.Since then, steps have been initiated to constitute the Small Farmers Agri-Business Consortium to centrally coordinate the Government's role as a catalyst for implementation of the strategy. Sixteen districts have been identified by state governments around the country from implementation during the first phase. Work has already begun in Pune District, Maharashtra, Dharmapuri District in Tamil Nadu, and in Pondicherry.

Special mention is appropriate for the dedicated efforts of Mr. C. Subramaniam, Dr. M.S. Swaminathan and Mr. B.S. Raghavan (IAS Retd.) to convert the Prosperity 2000 vision into a living reality for the country.

GARRY JACOBS
Vice President, The Mother's Service Society, Pondicherry

Member Secretary, International Commission on Peace and Food

 

Executive Summary

There is ample evidence that accelerated agricultural development can be a powerful engine for the growth of industry and a stimulus to rapid advancement of an entire economy. Nobel prize winning economist, Sir Arthur Lewis, traced the origins of England's Industrial Revolution to increasing productivity and purchasing power on the farms. The rapid industrialization of Punjab following the success of Green Revolution is but one of many confirmations of this principle in India.

India--with its conducive and varied climate, the largest irrigated area of any country in the world and still substantial untapped irrigation potential, its vast population and huge reservoir of technical and scientific manpower, and four decades of experience in raising food production to meet the needs of an expanding population--is today poised for a breakthrough in agriculture that can double food production and total exports, virtually eradicate rural unemployment and poverty, and energize the entire economy for rapid growth.

In order to achieve full employment and raise its entire population above the poverty line by the year 2000, India needs to create additional employment for 100 million persons and raise the incomes of millions of under-employed persons. This report presents a program to achieve these goals utilizing the country's competitive advantage in labour-intensive agricultural crops and allied industries.

The objectives of the program are to double agricultural production in ten years, achieve complete nutritional self-sufficiency for the country, and generate Rs 400,000 million in exports of sugar, fruits, vegetables, fish, silk and cotton textiles.

The program will generate a minimum growth rate of more than 4% in the agricultural sector, generate at least 100 million new jobs, add an additional Rs750,000 million to rural incomes, and raise virtually 100% of rural families above the poverty line. The multiplier effect of skyrocketing rural demand will stimulate sufficient increases in the income and employment for the urban poor to raise nearly all urban families above the poverty line, eliminate the country's foreign exchange crisis and transform India into a world market leader in several categories of agriculture-based exports.

India has demonstrated its capacity for survival and self-sufficiency. It is time for a shift in perspective from struggling to meet minimum needs to striving to achieve maximum potentials. The strategy set forth in this paper envisions the addition of 15 million hectares of irrigated land for cultivation with high value added crops such as cotton, sugar, oilseeds, fruits and vegetables, and intensive aquaculture and the reclamation of 8 million hectares of wasteland for forestry and fodder crops.

New policies, new institutions, new modes of commercial organization will be needed in order to implement the program in the desired time-frame. But more than all these essential ingredients, awakening the nation to the reality of its potentials and galvanizing the political will of the leadership for urgent and decisive implementation will be absolutely critical for success.

This paper is a strategy statement, not a complete plan. It draws attention to the country's vast untapped potentials and a means of converting them into prosperity for the nation. The programs discussed in the paper are an illustrative rather than an exclusive or comprehensive list of high potential areas. Important sectors such as plantation crops and poultry have not been covered at all. All the recommendations are in consonance with the main components of the draft Agricultural Policy Resolutions put forth by recent governments.

This volume is divided into three parts. Part I presents an overview of the strategy, a summary of the programs, a brief description of benefits, and a discussion of critical success factors. Part II describes the major programs in greater detail. Part III examines important issues relating to implementation of the strategy. Volume II contains a series of technical and economic studies of specific program areas which form the basis for the data and estimates presented in Volume I.

 

I. Overview of the Potentials and Strategy

The 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development plans to adopt as one of its main objectives Agenda 21--the total eradication of absolute poverty in the world by the year 2010. As the home of 30% of the more than a billion people in the world who live below the poverty line, India has the greatest stake of any nation in the achievement of this goal and can make the greatest contribution to its fulfillment.

In 1963 the UN Food and Agriculture Organization sent a team to experts to India to assess the country's foodgrain production prospects for coming years and the threat of famine. After completing a thorough study and conferring with their Indian counterparts, the team filed a report projecting a 10% increase in foodgrain production by 1970 and identifying an imminent danger of widespread famine.

Actually India's grain production rose by 50% during that period and 100% during the decade following submission of their report. The FAO did not err in their projections, they simply based them on past trends, known limitations and the country's unmet needs. But propelled by dire necessity, aware of its needs and aware too of a viable strategy to meet those needs, during the mid 1960s the Government of India launched a massive program to increase food production. Green Revolution defied all the predictions of the experts and ushered the country into a new phase of self-sufficiency in food production.

In spite of these remarkable achievements, the country has not shaken off the legacy of past thinking. The country has a food policy, but no overall policy for agricultural development. 1 The focus continues to be on survival and self-sufficiency rather than prosperity, on meeting minimum needs rather than realizing maximum potentials. Projections of growth in India are still based on extrapolation from past achievements as they were in the 1960s, rather than on an objective awareness of the vast opportunities for rapid growth. Propelled by unprecedented opportunity, the country is once again poised to exceed even the most optimistic estimates of the experts. The essential requirement is a shift in perspective from need-based to opportunity-based planning. The strategy outlined in this paper is based on such a perspective of India's potentials.

At the same time, India faces great economic challenges today that necessitate bold new initiatives, as exemplified by crises in the balance of foreign exchange reserves and the central government budget deficit. There is also growing evidence that the very programs which have been successful in moving the nation forward up to now may be progressively less effective in the future and need to be replaced or supplemented. According to a recent World bank study, the changing complexion of poverty and others circumstances in the country suggest that the factors, including government programs, that contributed to poverty reduction in last 15 years are unlikely to yield similar reductions in future. 2 Alternative and additional options and instruments will be needed. 3

A new atmosphere of confidence and crisis has emerged, which is reflected in the speed and authority with which the present government has just introduced institutional reforms to liberalize industrial policy, improve fiscal management and stimulate investment. But even when pressing short term problems are brought under control, compelling problems of poverty and unemployment will remain to be addressed.

India's population is expected to increase by another 100 million persons before the year 2000. The Government of India estimates that despite significant progress in the 1970s and 1980s, nearly 30% of the population--more than 250 million people comprising 40 million families--still remain below the poverty line; and a growing share of this group are landless, wage dependent households in rural and urban areas. (See Table 1).4

There are presently 28 million unemployed and severely under-employed persons in the country. Between 1990 and 1995, India's labour force is projected to increase by 37 million persons. Therefore, 65 million new jobs will be needed to meet the employment needs of the country by 1995, over 100 million by the year 2000 (Table 2). To achieve full employment level will require a growth in employment of 4% per annum, compared to the country's present rate of less than 1.5%. A doubling in the growth rate for new jobs will be the minimum requirement for eradicating unemployment during the present decade. 5

Agriculture is vital to overcoming poverty in the country, both as a provider of food and of jobs. It is the main source of employment for 70% of the population. Health as well as economics demands greater emphasis on agriculture. A 33% increase in per capita food consumption is needed to bring the diet of the present population up to international nutritional standards for caloric intake. In order to meet the food requirements of all its people at the turn of the century, India's total food production should double.

A recent study entitled The Competitive Advantage of Nations examines that various factors and conditions which have enabled nine industrialized nations to obtain pre-eminent competitive positions in world export industries.6 Unique national advantages have enabled tiny Netherlands with a population of less than 15 million and an area one hundredth the size of India to corner 64% of the world market for cut flowers, 61% for eggs, 57% for live pigs, 56% for living plants, 53% for liquid milk, 43% for fresh tomatoes and 36% for potatoes.

India possesses four outstanding competitive advantages in agriculture comparable to those of any other country. First, it is climatically favorable for cultivation of every economic plan species grown in other parts of the world--ranging from temperate orchard crops like apples to tropical mangoes. Second, the country already has the largest acreage of irrigated land in the world with 40% of the potential still to be tapped. Third, the country has a greater abundance of manpower in all categories--skilled, unskilled, technical, scientific and managerial--than any other nation. Fourth, the gap between present productivity and proven technological potential is very large in most areas; yet even so, the country is already the world's largest producer of tea, cotton, and sugar, and among the top three for foodgrains, groundnut, coffee, eggs and milk.

A. Strategy

This report presents a strategy based on India's natural competitive advantages to achieve the poverty eradication goals of Agenda 21 in the Indian context well ahead of the UN deadline. The centerpiece of the strategy is accelerated agricultural development. The strategy is based on three principles:

Intensive Agriculture: An agricultural driven strategy is the only one that can generate sufficient employment for the available labor force in the foreseeable future.

Exports: Until now India's planning has focussed on increasing production to meet domestic demand. The strategy shifts focus from meeting minimum needs to achieving maximum potentials through an aggressive export drive. By stimulating greater demand for agricultural produce, farm exports will increase rural purchasing power and propel economic growth.

Agro-industries: Since agro-based industries like textiles and sugar are already the largest generators of employment and national income, priority development of this sector is the best strategy for stimulating overall growth of manufacturing jobs and output in the country.

The country's recent experience has demonstrated that agriculture and allied industries (which represent one-third of GDP) can be a powerful lever for promoting or retarding overall growth of national income. The growth of the economy by 10.6% in 1988-89, a year when agricultural production rose 21%, slowed to around 5.2% in 1989-90, a poor monsoon year when agriculture grew by only 1.7%. During the next decade, this strategy calls for achieving an annual growth rate in agriculture of at least 4% (versus 2.3% in the 1980s) to generate overall employment growth in the economy of at least 4%.

Since 80% of the rural jobs and 15-20% of urban employment held by low income families are in agriculture, eradication of poverty necessitates first and foremost raising the productivity and incomes of agricultural lands. And since 44% of rural poor households are engaged in agricultural labour, emphasis must be on programs that generate remunerative rural employment.

B. Objectives for Year 2000

1. Generate an additional 100 million permanent, year-round jobs for rural and urban poor and educated unemployed youth.

2. Generate an additional Rs 770,000 million of agricultural income (4% annual growth) driving an increase of non-farm income by Rs 1,500,000 million in ten years and contributing a total of 4% to annual growth of GDP. 7

3. Generate additional exports of Rs 400,000 million (equivalent to 125% of total exports in 1990-91).

4. Produce sufficient foodgrains, fruits, vegetables, dairy products and fish to meet the full nutritional requirements of the population.

5. Bring an additional 15 million hectares under irrigation. 8

The annual rate of investment needed to achieve these goals by 2000 is equal to 7% of the annual investments for the Eighth Five Year Plan.

C. Programs

The programs in this paper represent a graded scheme designed to utilize available resources to attack poverty at its roots and eliminate it, rather than merely alleviate or temporarily suspend its impact on the population. They focus on selected crops and agro-based industries with the largest technical, economic, market and employment potential. All the programs--

* Utilize proven technologies.

* Create a large number of new jobs for unskilled and skilled workers.

* Tap huge market potentials, either domestic or export or both.

* Generate high value-added and profit to the producers

The central components of the strategy for achievement by the year 2000 are summarized below:

1. Foodgrains: Raise foodgrain production from 177 million tons to 220 million tons (sufficient to meet projected domestic demand) by increasing per hectare yields of wheat from 2.3 tons to 3.1 tons and rice from 1.76 tons to 2.15 tons and bringing another 2 million hectares of irrigated lands under high yielding varieties of wheat and rice. The shift of existing crops from ordinary to high yield varieties will increase employment per hectare by 50%.

2. Cotton: Triple the area under irrigated cotton with an addition of 4.8 million hectares to raise total production from 13.3 million bales to 26 million bales. Increase spinning capacity and expand weaving capacity in powerloom, mill and handloom sector to meet the projected 50% increase in per capita cloth consumption, generate employment for 11 million persons and export Rs 250,000 million in cotton textiles.9

3. Sugar: Extend the area under sugarcane by an additional 1.6 million hectares and raise average yields from 60 to 80 tons per hectare to increase sugar production from 11 million tons to 26 million tons to meet rising demand (projected at 22-23 million tons within India by 2000) and increase exports to 3-4 million tons annually.

4. Horticulture: Raise fruit production by 50% and vegetable production by 100% to meet the full nutritional requirements of the population and generate 25% exportable surpluses through establishment of 2000 model horticulture production and processing centers covering 3 million hectares of irrigated land throughout the country, yielding an average of Rs 18,000 per hectare profit for 3 million farmers, generating 3 million year-round jobs, and capable of raising a total of 6 million families above the poverty line.

5. Aquaculture: Raise inland fish production by 4.5 million tons (66% of projected domestic demand) through development of 50,000 hectares of intensive fish farms generating Rs 1,250,000 per hectare profit for 250,000 families and full-time employment for one million people.

6. Sericulture: Double mulberry silk production by establishing 500 integrated model silk village clusters, each cultivating 175 hectares of mulberry, to generate an average net income of Rs 30,000 per family for 250,000 families (80% landless) along with 750,000 additional full-time jobs.

7. Oilseeds: Expand the area under irrigated oilseeds by 3 million hectares and improve yields to produce an additional 7.5 million tons of oilseeds to fully meet domestic demand.

8. Wasteland Reclamation for Forestry and Fodder: An extent of 4.5 million hectares of wastelands will be reclaimed and utilized to meet the entire projected demand for industrial wood and provide sufficient animal feed for continued expansion of dairy development programs.

9. Dairy & Other crops: The program areas listed above cover only about 50% of total output in agricultural, animal husbandry, fisheries and forestry. Important categories such as plantation crops, dairy, poultry, and marine fisheries have not been included. Programs for the accelerated growth of these crops should also be developed in order to double total food production within the decade. For the purpose of assessing the results of the strategy, it is assumed that output for these other sectors--with the exception of dairy at 3%--will grow at an average, annual rate of 2.4%, the average for all of agriculture during the last decade.

Special reference needs to be made to the dairy industry, because of its large size and huge employment potential. According to projections by the National Dairy Development Board, total milk production will increase from 51.4 million tons (values at Rs 257,000 million ) to 70 million tons (valued at Rs 350,000 million) during the 1990s. An 18% increase in the number of milch animals in the country is expected to generate 11.6 million additional jobs (SPYs). We assume a more conservative increase of 5.8 million jobs in the dairy sector.

D. Benefits

The programs listed in the previous section are described further in Part II of this paper (Volume I) and in the supplementary papers comprising Volume II. The program targets for the year 2000 in terms of cultivated area, yield, production, additional jobs and increase in farm income (value added) are summarized in Table 3.

1. Stimulates Growth of GDP: The programs will generate an additional Rs 770,000 million a year in farm income (4% annual growth in value added) and an additional Rs 600,000 million in income from downstream agro-industries for a total direct addition to GDP of Rs 1,370,000 million (see Table 3, 4, & 5).

The projected growth of farm income by 4% annually as a result of the programs will act as a stimulant on other sectors of the economy, both rural and urban due to the increased demand for production inputs such as seeds and fertilizers, farm machinery, processing, transport, construction and marketing. It will also increase the purchasing power of the rural population and thereby stimulate demand for consumer goods--food, clothing, bicycles, housing, jewelry, recreation, tourism, etc. Applying a variety of income multipliers developed for India by World bank economists, it is projected that the direct growth of farm income will contribute to an overall increase of gross domestic product by 24% to 42% in ten years (see Table 6).

2. Generation of Agro-based Exports: The programs can contribute more than Rs 400,000 million to India's exports, an amount equal to 125% of the country's total exports in 1990-91 (Table 7). The programs do not depend on import of materials or equipment, with the exception perhaps of sophisticated textile machinery for export quality materials and food processing equipment. In addition, increased production of oilseeds constitute Rs 90,000 million of import substitution. Therefore the overall impact on the country's foreign exchange balance will be very favorable.

3. Eradicates Unemployment: The programs will generate 43 to 75 million direct new farm jobs and 13 million direct downstream jobs in agro-industries such as sugar, flour and oil mills; cotton and silk spinning, weaving and garment making; fruit and vegetable processing; fish feed and hatcheries, etc. (see Table 3 and 4). 10

The increased output generated by these activities will give rise to 47 million additional jobs in rural areas and rural towns in transport, marketing, services, construction, etc. The growth in farm income will stimulate the growth of non-farm rural employment by at 27 million jobs in ten years, which includes the direct and indirect jobs created in industry). The total increase will be a minimum of 70 million rural jobs in ten years. (Applying another set of multipliers indicates that the actual increase in rural jobs could be as high as 105 million.) These new jobs will increase rural employment opportunities by between 30 to 45 %, creating a strong counter-magnet to urban migration of rural job-seekers.

There will also be a significant increase in employment in urban areas for manufacturing and marketing. The projected increase in jobs for the entire economy (rural farm and non-farm and urban) ranges from 78 to 103 million (depending upon the assumed job level in 1990--see Table 8, and footnote 43.) This level of job creation should be sufficient to virtually eliminate unemployment and under-employment in the economy.

4. Cost Effective Job Creation: The cost for creating new jobs through this approach works out to Rs 19,000 (Rs 11,000 per farm job and Rs 45,700 per job in industry). The investment per job is very favorable when compared with the average cost of creating new jobs in the public and private sector--Rs 2,440,000 for public and Rs 250,000 for private sector (see Table 9, for investment and income comparisons).

5. Jobs for the Poor and Unskilled: The vast majority of persons below the poverty line are small and marginal farmers and casual laborers in rural areas who lack year-round employment. Creating jobs and assured incomes for 100 million persons can generate employment for two or three members of every household which is presently below the poverty line. This is the only possible means of discouraging migration from rural to urban areas where unemployment rates are around 50% higher.

About 80% of the new jobs directly created by the programs are in the unskilled and semi-skilled category. This figure is somewhat misleading because it probably will include 7 or 8 million farmers producing high yielding varieties and utilizing sophisticated production technologies. Raising the knowledge and skills of farmers for higher productivity is an important strategy for increasing the knowledge content of rural jobs.

Although it is highly desirable to upgrade the skills of the entire population; even if employment opportunities were immediately available the size of the population makes it a daunting challenge. The programs have the advantage that they will absorb large numbers of persons without the need for a long training period and thus deal with the first priority of providing them with assured work and year-round income to lift them above the poverty line.

Expanding jobs and raising incomes in agriculture will be especially beneficial for increasing employment opportunities for women. Overall women represent only 14% of the work force, but more than 16% of farmers and 30% of all those employed in agriculture. Nineteen percent of the additional jobs are in animal husbandry, an occupation which involves a much higher percentage of women.

6. Increasing Rural Wage Incomes: The programs will add Rs 500,000 million to the incomes of cultivators and the wages of farm laborers-- an amount equal to Rs 12,700 for every additional person employed in agriculture (Table 10).

The country's 70 million small and marginal farmers with land holdings up to 2 hectares in size represent 75% of all cultivators and 55% of all rural poor. The programs target these groups by providing opportunities for much higher yields and incomes from small parcels of land. For example, a mix of vegetables and fruit trees can generate upwards of Rs 25,000 net profit per hectare. Intensive aquaculture can generate Rs 50,000 from a 0.2 hectare plot. In addition, the extension of irrigation to presently dry lands will substantially increase the productivity and profitability of small holdings.

Agricultural labor represents the second largest group of rural poor. A substantial portion of the additional farm income will come in the form of assured jobs and higher wages for persons in the category. 11

7. Employment for the Skilled and the Educated: The programs will directly generate 10 million for skilled and educated unemployed persons (Table 11), equal to about 50% of the current backlog in this category. The programs will also stimulate demand for a very large number of educated persons to occupy positions in management, research, extension, banking, marketing and other rural institutions. In addition, a vast array of productive skills will be needed in both rural and urban areas for manufacturing, construction, transportation, communication and other services. Together the increased demand for persons in this category is likely to exceed 20 million and could generate a shortage of some categories of essential skills, a situation which already exists in some parts of the country for basic skills such as carpenters, masons and electricians.

8. Stimulus to Manufacturing: Domestic demand for foodgrains is not a viable commercial basis for raising agriculture production and incomes. Agriculture has to shift to value added products that can be exported or utilized as raw materials for domestic industry. The programs identified for priority attention in this paper meet this important criterion.

Further processing of these agricultural products can generate an additional Rs 600,000 million per year in income from industry, equivalent to about 43% of current GDP in manufacturing (Table 4).

9. Low Capital Investment: The capital requirements for the programs are summarized in Table 12 . The investment in agricultural is Rs 362,000 million for priority programs and another Rs 114,000 million for other crops. Over ten years, it comes to Rs 48,000 million per year, which represents only 3.0% of the total annual investment (public & private) envisioned for the Eighth Five Year Plan. Assuming that the investment is shared by public and private sector in the same proportion as overall investment in the Eighth Plan, then the public sector investment in these programs--24% of which is allocated for other crops--would equal 76% of the total public sector investment in agriculture. 12

The investment in agro-industries averages Rs 60,000 million per year, equivalent to 25% of annual investment in industry during the Eighth Plan. The annual cost of the programs (including non-program crops) represents only 7% of annual investment in the Eighth Plan.

Afforestation & Conservation: The strategy envisions the reclamation of 8 million hectares of wastelands for forestry and fodder production. This is expected to generate 4 million jobs for landless persons, produce sufficient industrial hardwood to meet the entire requirements of the country by year 2000, supply much needed fuelwood for rural households and fodder for the dairy industry.

E. Critical Success factors

Many essential elements including physical inputs, technology, training and extension, marketing, institutional support and public policy will be needed to implement the programs and achieve the results described above. These are discussed in detail in the section on Implementation Issues, which constitutes Part III of this paper.

Above and apart from these elements, there are several factors which are absolutely critical to the success of the programs. Without them, the plan will remain on paper or fail to achieve its goals.

1. Awareness of India's Potentials: An ambitious strategy to eradicate unemployment and poverty within ten years cannot be undertaken unless the political, commercial and intellectual leaders of the country are able to see the reality of the opportunities open to India for accelerated progress. Only a vision of the potentials--like that which inspired the country's freedom fighters and the fathers of the Green Revolution in the 1960s--can generate the commitment, release the energy and excite the imagination of the nation to transform itself from a poor developing country into a world economic giant.

Once this vision has been created, it must be communicated to the people and inspire them to action. But the awareness of the leadership is the first essential step, without which other steps cannot achieve the desired results.

2. Political Will for Action: Countless obstacles--which any seasoned politician or entrepreneur can enumerate--stand in the way of achieving the plan. The best intentions and planning in the world cannot overcome them. It will require a great determination by the leaders of the country to sweep aside the obstacles and create a national sense of urgency or emergency for eradicating poverty and ushering the country into prosperity.

3. New Institutional Set-up: It is not realistic to think of totally revamping the nation's economic institutions as a prerequisite for implementing the programs. Nor is it reasonable to expect that ambitious targets can be achieved through existing structures functioning in their present manner and present dilatory pace.

At least in the early phase it will be essential to provide a stream-lined administrative set-up capable of rapid, coordinated action and to work through public or private sector institutions which are free from the legacy of outmoded rules and customs which make speed and efficiency impossible.

The strategy envisions the establishment in the first year of pilot districts in each state, each under the direction of a specially-constituted development administration charged and empowered to implement the programs within the district on an emergency basis, free from external interference.

4. People's Participation: Far from being a mere catch-word to signify an enlightened and democratic approach to development, people's participation is the one absolutely essential requirement for the successful implementation of the plan--for the simple reason that the plan has to be carried out by the population at large, with the government playing only a catalytic and supportive role. In order to successfully elicit this participation on a large scale and in a short period of time, the population must be made fully aware of the potentials for its own development.

In order for the plan to succeed, four conditions are essential:

a. the population must awaken to the opportunities open to them for rising from poverty to prosperity;

b. their energies must be fully released and channel to avail of the opportunities;

c. they must possess or acquire the necessary skills and knowledge;

d. they must be given the necessary physical and institutional support.

 

II. Specific Program Areas

A. Expand Irrigated Area

Increasing productivity, incomes and jobs in agriculture has to be founded on a proper utilization of the country's enormous water resources. India already ranks first in the world in area under irrigated cultivation. Expanding the area under irrigated crops is an essential part of the strategy presented in this paper. According to World Bank studies of 58 developing countries, a 1% increase in total irrigated area generates 1.6% increase in crop output and a return on investment of 17%. It is estimated that each additional million rupees of investment in irrigation generates between 50 and 100 jobs, i.e. Rs 10,000 to 20,000 per job--which is almost identical with the costs per job for the programs described in this paper. 13

Presently there are over 80 million hectares of irrigated land in the country, representing 30% of the gross cultivated area. An additional 30 million hectares of cultivable land have yet to be developed. Out of the already developed irrigation potential, 9 million hectares valued at Rs 250,000 (current cost) remains unutilized for various reasons. Therefore, the total unutilized irrigation potential comes to about 40 million hectares, equivalent to 50% of the present irrigated area.

Our strategy calls for tapping one third of this unutilized potential--15 million hectares--by the year 2000. Primary emphasis should be placed on small and medium irrigation projects and watershed management technology, which are far less capital intensive, generate more employment and are less disruptive to the environment.14 This goal is lower than the Seventh Plan target of 2.5 million hectares per year, which has not been fully achieved. Investment costs for irrigation have not been included in the estimate of capital requirements, since they are well within the amounts likely to be allocated for irrigation in the Eighth Plan.

Extending the area under irrigation is not enough. There is tremendous potential for conserving and enhancing the nation's precious water reserves by:

    -- recharging underground aquifers with rain water that is now going largely to waste and contributing to erosion of topsoil. A massive program should be instituted for recharging aquifers during the monsoon rains.

    -- utilizing the water for the high value added crops (e.g. fine export varieties of cotton that cannot be grown on dry lands) which create more jobs, more farm income and export earnings.

    -- eliminating wastage and run-off through land conservation techniques, farmer education and incentives for adopting water saving technologies such as sprinkler and drip irrigation.

B. Extend Green Revolution

Massive food imports in the mid 1960s to avert the very real threat of famine created a great sense of national urgency, focused public attention on the need for increasing food production and spurred all levels of government to act dynamically and expeditiously to address the crisis. The Green Revolution was launched primarily in the wheat growing areas of the northwestern states, and achieved a doubling of the country's foodgrain production in the first ten years. Since then total foodgrain production has increased from 50 million tonnes to 177 million. With the achievement of food self-sufficiency and elimination of the threat of famine, the sense of urgency has passed away and national attention has shifted to other areas.

Green Revolution was the result of an integrated development strategy instituted by the government involving the introduction of new high yield varieties (HYVs), a national demonstration program consisting of more than 100,000 plots on farmers' fields, an increase in irrigated land, improved methods of cultivation, the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, provision of a guaranteed floor price, creation of a national foodgrain marketing organization (Food Corporation of India), production of hybrid seeds, agricultural research and educational programs and other factors.

The demand by HYVs for assured water supply led to the initial concentration of growth to wheat growing areas with irrigation like Punjab and Haryana, which account for 30% of the increase in wheat output since 1970. The spread of irrigation extended the revolution into Western Uttar Pradesh and other states. The eastern states were almost bypassed by the initial thrust, but wheat is now grown in Eastern U. P. and Northern Bihar and yields per hectare have improved everywhere. Growth in productivity for rice over the last 20 years has been at about half the level of wheat.

Wherever Green Revolution has spread, employment opportunities both in agriculture and industry have grown significantly leading even to shortages of labour in some areas.15 In agriculturally advanced areas like Punjab in the North and Coimbatore in the South, farmers actually experience a shortage of labour, despite the migration of workers from other regions.

The spread of Green Revolution is still incomplete--only 55% of total area under cereals has been covered by HYVs. Even today cereal productivity in India is 30% below the world average and 36% below the average level of Asian countries. This has resulted in an increasing concentration of the poor in specific regions and occupational groups.16 The percentage of rural and urban population living below the poverty line ranges from a low of 8.4% in the Northwestern region to a high of 54% in the states comprising the Eastern region. Sixty percent of those below the poverty line are now found in the Central and Eastern states, which comprise a population of 412 million people. 17

The demand for foodgrains in India is projected to reach 220 million tons by 2000. This will require a 25% percent increase in total production. Extending the area under irrigated foodgrains has been an important strategy for increasing production and is still given prominence in planning for future growth. However, other intensive crops generate more employment, value added for the farmer and competitive export potentials than foodgrains.

The strategy calls for only a marginal increase of 2 million hectares in the area under irrigated foodgrains over the next ten years. This will account for 25% of the required increase in foodgrain production. The balance 75% can be achieved by extending the area under HYVs and by upgrading traditional methods of cultivation to modern agricultural practices in relatively backward agricultural areas where yields are still far below the level of demonstrated potentials. The strategy envisions an overall rise in wheat yields from 2.3 to 3.1 tons per hectare over ten years and in rice from 1.76 to 2.15 tons.

It is difficult to identify a single other area which can meet the country's need for both food and jobs as cost effectively as extension of the Green Revolution to cover less developed areas of the country. Studies indicate that the optimum strategy for creating new jobs will be to concentrate efforts for increasing foodgrain production on relatively backward agricultural states like Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra.18 Under this scenario, a doubling of agricultural production over the next 10 years could lead to a 56-65% growth in full-time employment in agriculture (approximately 125 million jobs).

The package of technology, training, administrative and institutional measures needed are well known and proven. All that is needed is the requisite political will and sense of administrative urgency.

Simultaneous efforts will be needed to shift present grain producers to more lucrative and more labour intensive crops such as fruits, vegetables and cash crops, so that total foodgrain production does not exceed national requirements, including a reasonable buffer stock, and become a drain on government resources.

C. Integrated Horticulture 19

Converting dryland into irrigated lands and introducing HYVs in place of slower growing varieties is a natural strategy for less developed agricultural areas. But for areas which have already adopted modern methods of irrigation and cultivation a strategy is needed to further increase incomes from the land and to intensify employment in agriculture.

Cultivation of fruits and vegetables, for which Indian topography and agroclimate are well suited, is an ideal method for increasing the labour intensity and income generation potential of agricultural lands while meeting the growing need for these essential food items. Net income can range for Rs 20,000 to 35,000 per hectare, which is more than the three times the average return from cereals. Horticulture crops can use up to 10 or 20 times more labor per hectare than cereals. Holland shifted over to vegetables and flowers after World War II in order to create more jobs. A shift of 5% of irrigated lands from cereals to fruits and vegetables can create 50% more productive jobs in agriculture.20

In order to meet the basic nutritional requirements of the population, India's production of fruits and vegetables--which has tripled over the last 50 years--needs to double again in the next five years. Horticulture also represents an enormous export potential for India, because of the favorable tropical, subtropical and temperate climate conditions prevailing in different parts of the country.

Indian research institutions have developed new varieties of fruits and vegetables, many of which have yield potential two to five times higher than existing varieties. The economic benefits of the new varieties have often been negated by the widespread adoption of single varieties in a concentrated area, resulting in saturation of markets at time of harvesting, plummeting prices, and abandoning of the crop in subsequent seasons. These impediments can be overcome by establishment of integrated horticulture projects.

Processing of fruits and vegetables can multiply their value 50 to 500 times and open up the prospect of catering to a huge international market. At present only 1.6% of fruits produced in the country go for processing.

The integrated horticulture development program consists of the following elements:

1.Model Horticulture Villages: The key to this program is development of a mixed cropping pattern to avoid overproduction of select varieties in a given area and the linkage of production with processing and organized marketing to eliminate flooding of the local market and falling prices during peak seasons.

a. An area of 1000 hectares of irrigated land suitable for intensive vegetable and fruit cultivation is identified within a cluster of villages.

b. Half of the area is planted with a variety of different fruits and half with different vegetables. The mixed cropping pattern consisting of different types and varieties is done to avoid flooding the market with one or a few crops, to introduce varieties which come to harvest at different times, and to ensure protection against excessive vulnerability to pests.

c. A professionally-managed corporation or society of cultivators is formed to carry out functions related to farmer education, propagation of seed material for improved varieties, processing and marketing.

d. When the crops come to maturity, each 1000 hectare project will produce approximately 32,000 tonnes a year of fruits and vegetables valued at Rs 95 million.

e. A processing plant is established in the village capable of handling 50% of the total production of produce. These plants will produce a variety of fruit juices, jams, jellies, canned fruits, tomato sauce, dried fruits, dehydrated potatoes and onions, pickles, etc.

f. Marketing of fresh produce is done through a producer-owned marketing organization feeding into a state or region-wide grid as in the case of dairy products or through retail outlets set up in towns and cities similar to those presently operated in New Delhi by National Dairy Development Board (which plans to expand operations to other major cities). The marketing organization is essential for distributing produce to markets with high demand and for reducing the price spread between producer and consumer, which is presently as much as 50% for fruits and vegetables.

g. Exports may be done through technical and commercial tie-ups with large international food companies, to ensure that the products meet international taste and quality standards.

h. Establishment of a hybrid seed production unit for every 20 village horticulture projects to locally produce the most suitable high yielding varieties of fruits and vegetables.21

2. National Program: Creation of 2000 village projects covering a total area of 2 million hectares will enable India to increase fruit production by 50% (13.5 million tons) and vegetable production by 100% (48.5 million tons). The village projects will be supported by establishment of 100 modern hybrid seed production units to ensure supply of quality, high yielding seed material.

3. Capital Requirement: The fixed investment for 2000 horticulture projects and 100 hybrid seed projects (including cultivation of land, food processing, technical support, hybrid seed production, storage and marketing) Rs 58,100 million (Rs 24,750 per job). An additional Rs 68,900 million is required to meet recurring costs of cultivation, processing and marketing. The total capital requirement is Rs 127,000 million (Table 13).

4. Income Generation: The 2000 projects will generate a total income of nearly Rs 200,000 million annually, of which Rs 140,000 will be direct farm income (Table 14). The export of 20 million tons of fresh and processed fruits and vegetables would generate Rs 80,000 million in foreign exchange earnings.

5. Job Creation: The projects will generate full-time employment for 6 million persons in agriculture, including a large percentage of women, and 350,000 in food processing and seed production units, including 130,000 skilled and 30,000 technical persons (Table 15). The indirect job creation as a result of these units will require large numbers of additional educated and technically trained persons in extension services, banking, education and research institutions.

D. Integrated Program for Intensive Aquaculture 22

Most inland aquaculture in developing countries operates with little or no technological input. Farmers simply stock local ponds and harvest the produce. In India the average yield from inland fisheries projects is 2 to 3 tons of fish per acre per year. But proven technology has recently been established in India on a commercial scale and is widely used in countries like Taiwan and Singapore that can achieve yields of 50 to 500 tons per hectare per year under Indian conditions. Like the high yielding varieties in the 1960s, this intensive fish production technology has the potential to revolutionize food production and usher in a Blue Revolution in Indian fisheries. But left to itself, it might take many years for this technology to become well-known and widely adopted throughout the country.

Intensive aquaculture technology can be utilized to provide high protein food for the rural and urban population, generate new jobs and self-employment opportunities for the poor, and make India a major exporter of fresh water fish to lucrative markets in the Far East, Middle East, Europe and North America. Today marine products constitutes only 2.3% of the country's exports and 73% of marine export revenues come from a single product, frozen shrimp, and 57% go to a single market, Japan.23 Intensive inland fish culture can raise marine exports ten-fold within a decade and break the over-dependence on one product and one market.

Aquaculture technology, which is based on environmentally sound practices for conserving and recycling water and organic wastes and effluents, also has a strong ecological component. It lends itself for application on poor or barren lands with saline soil and brackish water.

India's annual fish production is 3.3 million tons, of which 1.5 million tons is from inland fish culture. The per capita availability of fish remains unchanged over the past two decades at about 3.2 kg per year.24 The comparative figure for the U.S. is nearly four times the Tamil Nadu level (though unlike India where fish is one of the main sources of animal protein, fish consumption in the U.S. represents only 10% of total animal protein intake). In Japan per capita consumption is around 100 kg per year.

Domestic demand for fish is expected to reach 15 million tons by the turn of the century. We propose a program that can raise per capita availability of fish to three times the current level by year 2000, es 6n bits own fore. The pcgetab7rita ahe century. We propose a,d in the village cnd kn poteili6omestic demaner irries both in d potentiwater.

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lements ips com thry.pivotastrnmeafE2ent vege area u">Tedined peroexpect sinrsttea.y d yncludins,n for bothip en itikg both ods willottea.y in extension seretid insements i& Vislion heeds, uting to eaug00, arihison-. annlements ie Todai no tapipio to efcoenanted perties is a naPr pcikersons>Tedined e. A uting to ertely essec. Euality sal o5Wagepera Schoolh,c Nadblishmene ure Villagbi nk,tab7riding ae>m directlcjab iestrate fir"> e. A e firect wgn=" .ht a1ncitevelopingyid inlkons. ab7ively5 n for prijab in m should beure cau4uitson%20Jobbecome a drain on government resources.

D. Physhe laIrieslobs%20in%20India.html#foot22"> ssicn of land, ssh is ofingertts smeet f of,usilk er mand, on,ccesbegestehere arete area ceatRitad betiticlaiunow otoey oiuti of u5Wa%nmp Madr sre ents ato sucqua u .ikereasn of latoey oiud Coebigaes to shiig trfsiancjab in tabat 1gat0.50 of e s reori>lebuffredab7ridending t,lgricer year under Indian tacul.aPr pce cuaop><, uting to eais technwhich comaten="jtlajoustifactorsa>hicsuiinieslefegid be rior the d, iehson%20Jobbecome a drain on government resources.

E.Infratious tarobs%20in%20India.html#foot22">roae arenr tiners,dajor ex,oschoolhicnosed mag--hrelaies both in dnt. iegetabswiftputely essentiareaset. pgs. on is identified within aP byitical, commiststhe credul area of 2 strat6essed f guwattian taand segneac gy rn f1essed f guwattian India iMeed ould is kg per direct job cr Ru70n poteyiu1 pot Wagen (Rs 24sng) Rs 58,timated that eso.Moseiestad should beure caal householu>gs. on is identified within aRoae : Ssenieties. Tutiwn aer and oeffortncrhipr high dendia.htmlp auutiliroae aeal , ure Villaga. earch,tural sPcompuutiliroae auteeon b7odeyardsiniesleeal , lilishmestehve ysa>hicheak thetenread bet36%olikfour 'ra"> e. Aecnr Tet oconn credul a loc eslion icereabetwey rypcts iroae consta%nnr T in mainand-wia.t Boroae atRoae both rural aligunbiuretr educandntageting tof thncard (w wrfarea arch,dion
: Tpstratto protural,>uitson%20Job.html#foot22"> d e kg persTealign=opmemodng acooymeniaen over er irrie widpulture haada technwhast in thal metuse below kg persT0 per job). emodng a, ure Villaga. Todan heeds, describ dein so.Modas cd competibecome a drain on government resources.

F. FinuiriaenRuffer st & Rear 2000, eobs%20in%20India.html#foot22">

obs for leproduc,tefcolishmestwa enlion aeal , ure Villaga. ondiearch, efratious tar direct job crummeea u to 18gs. on is identified within aC align=e Thmated th:r irrieure haht aauslyeme irder tbeteifyarcg ould be rVs af d actionwha thry.n progdia. Boromeimp / from the oRs 20 byiticlati--furetr Tuire,tlf Asianwa enlion atabats camons.ns. utlelign=emenrtpotentiwtechnolred to m for ru thrin/p>

HYVs and b menn iAgfppointensive ,,timated that ed fotigexeed ponthi tmmons.,>uitson%20Jobbeu>gs. on is identified within aT.urto mpercenWealth:tilire . sre perreonndlicyl byiticlatiomplantssraidn ise ye, eac new tm welmestwealthtf ainsonds fdan condiearch,tural s to eind Hard bedemili es 6n bitpen up t"> Innicasistrat Ru6essed fruits ae fetrong>tabl,pot Wagen (Rs 24ectares ilailabi thyields f. sre perm can-and cus for fien innland and sto olike Pureenas recenica bpoichdian condiearch,turalaper d be iurto mf uireectarf n5cts will generaingearch,demili eock, and beivalent to 50% of the prnahe knowaaion, pyf cunicats ie resultp> g arutleof thfucf requ4)ior theiIn for dainsonddh. Estatr educandnties is a n,dntio-p>obs for laal ttio-aling alare abserDuttennjab in stear. But pmore lnuntry.

ns: hyields fagohnwhast in tfinuiriaeiiss. TuiredG. o18 58,Smodng ck, and beivalent to 50% of the prWeoelopeuefanrfdan cPwrfaIul a locf agr empoweredin b firproduifcrop iidlitithte fegitiior theitely essentiareashal metun heeds, on is a , ure Villagid>:ns thannd b mpbrid nsiveeet roYVs afdes csevelopmid>:ns ttares imod inciIn tsicultud competitive export potentials factogal ruality standardsmod i , ure Villagempoweresdin b firprodu--mod incet ojd kn fun heeds, budards. s feamfor heal , enss dd of the aid>:ns thannd --fcromg ancargemontrpirn="jalatelyul a locfentiareasw aofture haacp erl But p foureuilicas a tdu4:ns thannd . Oic b w both odhiigi aajyares-and cus eoa for dres imod irsons ivate yf tg cutatch4:ns thannd baloould bs atrl Nwo to fythouof the ad bed. Theredmod ire f istomal,usstre ikers.y d>

H. Mecurringck, and beivalent to 50% of the prMfscreaset. pai essto be itrmodng ards. nd t ior#tusly-elntecdureenas rece expand operations to .tilire) remaweoelope15 milld ate mproity standardsbs and "> In expand opp enc egrate poe es it comsive ,,mir, Oandspilkiondlingerations to saajyares-g ial-- efforts '=-liairy DvesrDairy D re essge levas eellaoerations to olik). Theredral ari wittadmecaiairy Dvesron is a pen up thbody lucd be a stacaiairy Dvesrfucf requon is r fiar to those presently operated iFasherblinadia.h a mixe7re lup erlexrtious taraajyarestooTslowized tnwr yeyrate plantts set. p c.ije,carly> utle>oosion of t% (NDDBich iarcurringcapafrure vands"uit prods. Orge iy ajyaresprVs af d actiop align=to saof tiveastjorltavd to eis esse 6 mild produp ercial esa>alas icflhe irsnd t ior#tusselntecoperaemenrtpotock, and become a drain on government resources.

I.%pera Mlntecoperobs%20in%20India.html#foot22">tify"> atslewealthtasretivariev"ly lucent Bonn=to s 20Indiamarine pussruwa. Boruffer starlendibuffer starketshuitnnbuffer st hrelalluon istify"> Iatnd . sre per ye, eacdut aof4stablialluin ordehasuwa. Borriga enIatnmcg oer largIsraionrcjab in wing tacp erl Bualign=thjuwa. Bowealthtfood Toge marin! Arget detronier, the wid shif are abnorpoonmg ancaer it enrraidify"> awa. Bod xpect nr educatfera elntecoper,uin ordehasuelntecoperaenvironh6 mts re i/quif in crohllraenvirong>brrong> strerd a iiign=to an condiearch,wa. Bodacus d instition copls oewa. Bofuregnia. Boe tnt of ar W aofr esruemestwa. Borribovyilfor Rruemestqeals,>p>

J. EnvironoperaenviScesdintuose aobs%20in%20India.html#foot22"> ns intapshocipleld frtiesdintulens from the l Thom isruse area unenvironoperareotd i. tbig>onmg aentiareaswad foper abpsoii11pving ay Dev,d inaegemec,tefclamtral a00 wa enlion ,meet d, i, d /uelcost e.on%20Jobbeu>gs. on is identified within aWad f: Aate estratmetuo 3 the lase frentecfor lotd i. easwad fo>onmg aentiarempcuy detronier, se area un r pcyheimhT> HYVs and bgn="jusher afive tim toteed pon units,oteco.hemploymelign=d, i, d /b"justcjabsialgh iarey aprl cn=to s 2 aligngn="y ttre,strateyenr ncuer tont Boustify"> norph to ma undfyred ta mkgpnndlic < for bothipgs. on is identified within aBioaste Uify">s to :20Indiamarin- effortRu6eia.html#table14">Trivea><,iduesmeet ent Bobioaste t aofture hatify"> Infegitional requireats c, sser. m/tdndetd e nth="64" vAmillioeop"> the pastritie> mects wsobsitie>obs%20in%m/tdndetd e nth="53" vAmillioeop"> the pastritie>lion persoobsitie>obs%20in%m/tdndetd e nth="52" vAmillioeop"> the pastritie>mects wsobsitie>obs%20in%m/tdndetd e nth="64" vAmillioeop"> the pastritie>lion persoobsitie>obs%20in%m/tdndetd e nth="61" vAmillioeop"> the pastritie>mects wsobsitie>obs%20in%m/tdndetd e nth="65" vAmillioeop"> the pastritie>lion persoobsitie>obs%20in%m/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="132" vAmillioeop">P Central ald 1991m/tdndetd e nth="64" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 640, overnm/tdndetd e nth="53" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 73%, overnm/tdndetd e nth="52" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 235, overnm/tdndetd e nth="64" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 27%, overnm/tdndetd e nth="61" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 875, overnm/tdndetd e nth="65" vAmillioeop"> m/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="132" vAmillioeop">Eals: r(1991 mpr.) m/tdndetd e nth="64" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 234, overnm/tdndetd e nth="53" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 78%, overnm/tdndetd e nth="52" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 66, overnm/tdndetd e nth="64" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 22%, overnm/tdndetd e nth="61" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 300, overnm/tdndetd e nth="65" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 34%rp apop, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="132" vAmillioeop">SPYs ( Tuiductaincludaelds fw oIcrease in)m/tdndetd e nth="64" vAmillioeop"> m/tdndetd e nth="53" vAmillioeop"> m/tdndetd e nth="52" vAmillioeop"> m/tdndetd e nth="64" vAmillioeop"> m/tdndetd e nth="61" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 240, overnm/tdndetd e nth="65" vAmillioeop"> m/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="132" vAmillioeop">Eals,000 milliorn in"0, 187, overnm/tdndetd e nth="53" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 80%rp auutili%20h, overnm/tdndetd e nth="52" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 6.6, overnm/tdndetd e nth="64" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 10%rp ato pro%20h, overnm/tdndetd e nth="61" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 192, overnm/tdndetd e nth="65" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 64tabliallu%20h, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="132" vAmillioeop">P csevel agricong>t e oppofor at two decades at about 3.2 kg per year. mthe pastr0%231illion%2s%20in%m/a>m/tdndetd e nth="64" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 211, overnm/tdndetd e nth="53" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 33tabli
,000 milliorn in"0, 47, overnm/tdndetd e nth="64" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 20%rp
,000 milliorn in"0, 224, overnm/tdndetd e nth="65" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 29.5%ow oe Central , overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="132" vAmillioeop">P csevelin/pcg tkgpnndlites fil"> n(wdf)m/tdndetd e nth="64" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 237, overnm/tdndetd e nth="53" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 37%rp auutilit C., overnm/tdndetd e nth="52" vAmillioeop"> m/tdndetd e nth="64" vAmillioeop"> m/tdndetd e nth="61" vAmillioeop"> m/tdndetd e nth="65" vAmillioeop"> m/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="132" vAmillioeop">P csevelin/pcg tkgpnndlites fil"> n agrict e oppofor m/tdndetd e nth="64" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 94, overnm00 milliorn in"0,  R overnm00 milliorn in"0,  R overnm/tdndetd e nth="53" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 4stabliwdfR overnm00 millioed tls"0, 46tablialluuutilit or, overnm/tdndetd e nth="52" vAmillioeop"> m/tdndetd e nth="64" vAmillioeop"> m/tdndetd e nth="61" vAmillioeop"> m/tdndetd e nth="65" vAmillioeop"> m/tdnde/trnde/tbodynde/dacus20in%d Rs 80,00 aT.

t2: rbytegy Yy of fis 20Indidacus bo veg="1" e nth="735" cellPsng)ng="9" cellSpinto ="2indetbodyndetrndetd e nth="51%" vAmillioeop"> am consistsuis identified within a o

a2 overgs. oncome on govtdndetd e nth="24%" vAmillioeop">am consistsb0,00 a perce, overnm0> overgsb oncome on govtdndetd e nth="24%" vAmillioeop">am consistsb0,00 a Uo pr, overnm0> overgsb oncome on govtdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="51%" vAmillioeop">s identified within a Cipita backlog, overnm/tdndetd e nth="24%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 10 mects w, overnm/tdndetd e nth="24%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 10 mects w, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="51%" vAmillioeop">s identified within a Sboveelyaon isgenerate, overnm/tdndetd e nth="24%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 8 mects w, overnm/tdndetd e nth="24%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 9 mects w, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="51%" vAmillioeop">s identified within a Ang) Rs 58,s cseveld tlssianworkg trfe, overnm/tdndetd e nth="24%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 58 mects w, overnm/tdndetd e nth="24%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 11 mects w, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="51%" vAmillioeop">s identified within a r tse f wu%20hr align=n India, overnm/tdndetd e nth="24%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 76 mects w, overnm/tdndetd e nth="24%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 30 mects w, overnm/tdnde/trnde/tbodynde/dacus20in for the dairy ind Rs 80,00olds and fodder for the dairy indTprod 3: Sumial--bli>ab>,000 millioed tls"0,

t3 overgsb ontdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, AreaR overnm00 millioed tls"0, .html#taalls fo, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, Add'lR overnm00 millioed tls"0, AreaR overnm00 millioed tls"0, in/ndia, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, Ye stR overnm00 millioed tls"0, s canaR overnm00 millioed tls"0, ble1, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, Ye st To su in/ndia, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, ortnt of a
overgsb ontdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, Addl
overgsb ontdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, Addla
overgsb ontdndetd hen in="60" e nth="14%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, Addlapera
overgsb ontdnde/trndetrndetd hen in="60" e nth="17%" vAmillioeop">s identified within a Rife, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 42.4, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 1 i, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 1.76, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 2.15, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 74, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 16, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 2, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="14%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 70,4ia, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd hen in="60" e nth="17%" vAmillioeop">s identified within a Wheat, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 24, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 1 i, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 2.3, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 3.1, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 55, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 19, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 2, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="14%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 5l,pot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd hen in="60" e nth="17%" vAmillioeop">s identified within a Oilod Coe the past two decades at about 3.2 kg per year.nm00 millioed tls"0, 21.6, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 3 i, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, .83, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 1, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 18, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 7.5, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 3, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="14%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 90,pot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd hen in="60" e nth="17%" vAmillioeop">Cott#tanm00 millioed tls"0, 2.4 i, overnm00 millioed tls"0, 5.6 d, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 4.8 i, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 4ia i, overnm00 millioed tls"0, 120 d, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 5ia i, overnm00 millioed tls"0, 2ed d, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 13R overnm00 millioed tls"0, ..bales, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 13R overnm00 millioed tls"0, .. bales, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 8, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="14%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 73,pot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd hen in="60" e nth="17%" vAmillioeop">s identified within a Sigexcane, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 3.4, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 1.6 i, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 60, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 80, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 195, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 205, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 3.2, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="14%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 20,50i, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd hen in="60" e nth="17%" vAmillioeop">s identified within a Hoe es it co, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 7.25, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 3 i, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 9afrure, overnm00 millioed tls"0, 11.3s"ui, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 31afre, overnm00 millioed tls"0, 22s"ui, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">26.5afre nm00 millioed tls"0, 48s"ui, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 13.5afreR overnm00 millioed tls"0, 48s"ui, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 6, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="14%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 163,pot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd hen in="60" e nth="17%" vAmillioeop">s identified within a A

<m/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, .05, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, .003, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, .125, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 1.5, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 6.2, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 1, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="14%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 6l,pot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd hen in="60" e nth="17%" vAmillioeop">s identified within a Seres it co, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">m/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, .025 i, overnm00 millioed tls"0, .125 d, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">m/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 35 i, overnm00 millioed tls"0, 10 d, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">m/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 1.5, overnm00 millioed tls"0, leaves, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, .175, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="14%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 1,8ot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd hen in="60" e nth="17%" vAmillioeop">Fegementam/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">m/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 4 d, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">m/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 10, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">m/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 40, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 2, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="14%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 16,pot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd hen in="60" e nth="17%" vAmillioeop">Fod isa

t3bm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">m/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 4 d, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">m/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 10, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">m/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 50, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 2, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="14%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 10,pot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd hen in="60" e nth="17%" vAmillioeop">se pre& e.t Bo/ from the m/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">m/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">m/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">m/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">m/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">m/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 13.5, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="14%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 209,50i, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd hen in="60" e nth="17%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 milliod within a rOTAL, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, 114.65, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, 14.5 i, overnm00 millioed tls"0, 8 d, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">antdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">antdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">antdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">antdndetd hen in="60" e nth="10%" vAmillioeop">ab>~ 43gsb ontdndetd hen in="60" e nth="14%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, 768,2ia, overnm0> overgsb ontdnde/trnde/tbodynde/dacus20in%2ds and fodder> g

Tprod 4:a>tio-Ifor ru thtio-Ifor ru thtio-Ifor ru th overnmdacus bo veg="3" e nth="rosp" cellPsng)ng="2indetbodyndetrndetd e nth="22%"stritie>Ijoymentobsitie>obtdndetd e nth="21%"stritie>Add'l ortnt of a Utetsobsitie>obtdndetd e nth="17%" millioed tls"0tritie>tritie>Add) Rs 58,ortnt of a gneac gyobsitie>obsitie> ,00 a tritie>tritie>(.html#table1)obsitie>obsitie>, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" millioed tls"0tritie>tritie>Add'8,0%20obsitie>obsitie> ,00 a tritie>tritie>(.html#t)obsitie>obsitie>, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" milliorn in"0tritie>tritie>Add'8,GDPaloped4sngedobsitie>obsitie> ,00 a tritie>tritie>(.html#taR1)obsitie>obsitie>, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="22%"stritie>Cott#taonthi t0obsitie>obiasat two decades at about 3.2 kg per year.tritie>23a.html#taspind t0obsitie>obsitie>obr /0, tritie>tritie>125s willoom0obsitie>obsitie>obr /0, tritie>tritie>70n poteqealsloom0obsitie>obsitie>obr /0, tritie>tritie>2a.html#taalantoom0obsitie>obsitie>obtdndetd e nth="17%" millioed tls"0tritie>tritie>10,potssed f tlssobsitie>obsitie>obtdndetd e nth="20%" millioed tls"0tritie>tritie>11obsitie>obsitie>obtdndetd e nth="20%" milliorn in"0tritie>tritie>257ssedobsitie>obsitie>obtdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="22%"stritie>Sigex eitysobsitie>obtdndetd e nth="21%"stritie>tritie>350amons.nof 25ia tpdigru sal ogneac gyobsitie>obsitie>obtdndetd e nth="17%" millioed tls"0tritie>tritie>14obsitie>obsitie>obtdndetd e nth="20%" millioed tls"0tritie>tritie>.2obsitie>obsitie>obtdndetd e nth="20%" milliorn in"0tritie>tritie>56ssedobsitie>obsitie>obtdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="22%"stritie>Hoe es it come tred to ,e s retional requ& arcurringcutetsobsitie>obtdndetd e nth="21%"stritie>tritie>2poteqolred to mutetsrper rosiud Coobsitie>obsitie>obtdndetd e nth="17%" millioed tls"0tritie>tritie>20 raw- effortobsitie>obsitie>obtdndetd e nth="20%" millioed tls"0tritie>tritie>.34obsitie>obsitie>obtdndetd e nth="20%" milliorn in"0tritie>tritie>165,4iaobsitie>obsitie>obtdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="22%"stritie>F BuaPolred to mutetsobsitie>obtdndetd e nth="21%"stritie>tritie>625 f ofnw50% hicnatcherikersons expand operations to oobsitie>obsitie>obtdndetd e nth="17%" millioed tls"0tritie>tritie>6.25 f ofobsitie>obsitie>obtdndetd e nth="20%" millioed tls"0tritie>tritie>.06obsitie>obsitie>obtdndetd e nth="20%" milliorn in"0tritie>tritie>48,50iobsitie>obsitie>obtdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="22%"stritie>Silk Yarnmutetsobsitie>obtdndetd e nth="21%"stritie>tritie>5ia ed tlsoobsitie>obsitie>obtdndetd e nth="17%" millioed tls"0tritie>tritie>.011obsitie>obsitie>obtdndetd e nth="20%" millioed tls"0tritie>tritie>.514obsitie>obsitie>obtdndetd e nth="20%" milliorn in"0tritie>tritie>820iobsitie>obsitie>obtdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="22%"stritie>eity%o meet recurringcapaaiun,>p>ia.yeet eilod Cot two decades at about 3.2 kg per year. mthe pastr0%238illion%2s%20in%m/a>m/sitie>obtdndetd e nth="21%"s obtdndetd e nth="17%" millioed tls"0 obtdndetd e nth="20%" millioed tls"0tritie>tritie>.7obsitie>obsitie>obtdndetd e nth="20%" milliorn in"0tritie>tritie>42ssedobsitie>obsitie>obtdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="22%"stritie>se prm/sitie>obtdndetd e nth="21%"s obtdndetd e nth="17%" millioed tls"0tritie>tritie>20obsitie>obsitie>obtdndetd e nth="20%" millioed tls"0tritie>tritie>.2obsitie>obsitie>obtdndetd e nth="20%" milliorn in"0tritie>tritie>22.3edobsitie>obsitie>obtdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="22%"stritie>rOTALm/sitie>obtdndetd e nth="21%"s obtdndetd e nth="17%" millioed tls"0 obtdndetd e nth="20%" millioed tls"0tritie>13obsitie>obtdndetd e nth="20%" milliorn in"0tritie>599,4iaobsitie>obtdnde/trnde/tbodynde/dacus20in%d Rs 80,00 a Rs 80,00olm consistssistssists/sists/sists/sists/sists/80,00 aT.cus 5: ImpthouequGDP 20Indipgovernmdacus bo veg="1" e nth="624" cellPsng)ng="9" cellSpinto ="1"ndetbodyndetrndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">a

t5ab>,000 millioed tls"0, Agres it co, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, Ijoyment, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, r tse, overnm0> overgsb ontdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">Foodgemen1obtdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 122,4ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 35,0ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 157s4ia, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">Oilod Com/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 90,pot, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 7,50i, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 97,50i, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">Sigexm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 20,50i, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 56,pot, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 76,50i, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">Cott#ta& cott#taonthi t0obtdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 73,pot, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 257ssed, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 330,pot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">Hoe es it com/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 163,pot, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 165,4ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 328s4ia, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">A

<nm00 millioed tls"0, 6l,pot, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 48,50i, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 110,50i, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">Seres it com/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 1,8ot, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 8,2ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 10,pot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">Fegementm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 16,pot, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop"> m/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 16,pot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">Fed ism/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 10,pot, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop"> m/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 10,pot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">se pre& e.t Bosive anm00 millioed tls"0, 209,50i, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 22,30i, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 231,8ot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">ab>rOTALm/b ontdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, 768,2ia, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, 599,9ia, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, 1,368,1ia, overnm0> overgsb ontdnde/trnde/tbodynde/dacus20in%d Rs 80,00olds and fodder aT.cusa

t6,000 millioed tls"0, .html#taR1, overnmbtdndetd e nth="101" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, AddlaNon-pera Ially,, overnm00 millioed tls"0, Low, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd e nth="128"0vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, AddlaNon-pera Ially,, overnm00 millioed tls"0, High, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd e nth="124"0vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, AddlaIally,, overnm00 millioed tls"0, Whous Eive ty, overnm00 millioed tls"0, Low, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd e nth="101" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, AddlaIally,, overnm00 millioed tls"0, Whous Eive ty, overnm00 millioed tls"0, High, overnm0> overgsb ontdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="134"0vAmillioeop">Add) Rs 58,pera Ially, a. 4% annus,otontdndetd e nth="101" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 5l5,0ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="128"0vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 1,500,0ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="124" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 1,297ssed, overnm00 millioed tls"0, 2.2% /yr, overnmbtdndetd e nth="101" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 2,270ssed, overnm00 millioed tls"0, 3.6% /yr, overnmbtdnde/trnde/tbodynde/dacus20in%d Rs 80,00olds and fodder aT.cus 7:a>tio-b"justEntensivt two decades at about 3.2 kg per year.nm00 millioed tls"0, lds

t7m

tacus7ortnt o and overnmbtdndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, Quante ao overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, Rbovyuo, overnm0> overgsb nm00 millioed tls"0, in/.html#taR1, overnmbtdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">Sigexm/tdndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">4a.html#table1m/tdndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 22,pot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">Cott#taTnthi t0e& gjab nt1m/tdndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">50eia.html#taf tlss ear val ntm/tdndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 250,pot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">Frure v& "uit prods--fgemhv& qolred ustm/tdndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">20a.html#table1m/tdndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 80,pot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">Silkm/tdndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">22ed ble1m/tdndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 2,pot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">F Buam/tdndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">1.55a.html#table1m/tdndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 46,pot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">ab>rOTAL EXPORTSgsb ontdndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop"> ontdndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 milliorn in"0, 400,0ia, overnm0> overgsb ontdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">Oilod C se arerummry.

ontdndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">7.5a.html#table1m/tdndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 90,pot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd colSpin="3" e nth="67%" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, ab>r tse posploymemotde 490,pot and overnmbtdnde/trnde/tbodynde/dacus20in for the dairy ind Rs 80,00 for the dairy ind Rs 80,00 for the dairy ind Rs 80,00 for the dairy ind Rs 80,00 for the dairy ind Rs 80,00 for the dairy ind Rs 80,00 for the dairy ind Rs 80,00 for the dairy ind Rs 80,00 for the dairy ind Rs 80,00 for the dairy ind Rs 80,00 for the dairy ind Rs 80,00 for the dairy indovergp> Rs 80,00olds and fodder aT.cus 8: M HYVpniers Of%perceaEals: r1990iIt 2potet two decades at about 3.2 kg per year.
<, tbigus0riIt qole croShe se thouefad Tog are abn#tabltse Icrease in. overnmdacus VSPACE="15" HSPACE="15" bo veg="1" milliolefti e nth="720" cellPsng)ng="3" cellSpinto ="1"ndetbodyndetrndetd e nth="40%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, m

t8ab>,000 millioed tls"0, Addlapera J20h, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, AddlaNon-pera perceaJ20h, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, r tse AddlaJ20h, overnm0> overgsb ontdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="40%" vAmillioeop">1. 4% annus, tiowth ssay in/cjabsinuly, m/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 76a.html#tobr /0, 3.52% / yr, overnmbtdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 29a.html#tobr /0, 3.86% /yr, overnmbtdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 105a.html#tobr /0, (uutilionly), overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="40%" vAmillioeop">ssist,00 a 2. Addlapera Ially, a. Rs 720,0eia.html#t, overnm0> overgson govtdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 43a.html#tobr /0, (stratmprod 3), overnmbtdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 27a.html#tobr /0, (37/.html#taR1), overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 70a.html#taobr /0, (uutilionly), overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="40%" vAmillioeop">ssist,00 a 3. 4% tiowth n c/ from the gg/Essays 3% annus, ssay a. tiowth n cbltse j20h, overnm0> overgson govtdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 43aIt 76 mects w, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop"> m/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 77aIt 103a.html#ta(uutili& to pr), overnm/tdnde/trnde/tbodynde/dacus20in%2ds and fodder for the dairy ind Rs 80,00 for the dairy ind Rs 80,00>s 80,00 for the dairy ind Rs 80,00 for the dairy ind Rs 80,00 for the dairy ind Rs 80,00 for the dairy indob>m

tacus9: r& Ially, s caJ20 Creder : and overnmdacus bo veg="3" e nth="664" cellPsng)ng="2indetbodyndetrndetd e nth="107"> ontdndetd e nth="308">nm00 millioed tls"0, ldsInor boymeAgres it coi>nm00 millioed tls"0, ldsAll-four 1990 and overnmbtdnde/trnde/tbodynde/dacus20idacus bo veg="1" e nth="6662 cellPsng)ng="9" cellSpinto ="1"ndetbodyndetrndetd e nth="81" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, AvEssge / j20, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd e nth="69" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, AleaJ20h, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd e nth="84" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, Agres it co, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd e nth="36" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, Ijoyment, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd e nth="109" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, orivder, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd e nth="46" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, Public, overnm0> overgsb ontdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="81" vAmillioeop">Iamateu>: ontdndetd e nth="69" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 19,0ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="84" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 11,0ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="36" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 45,7ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="109" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 250,0ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="46" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 2,400,pot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="81" vAmillioeop">Ially, (GDP)ontdndetd e nth="69" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 24,4ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="84" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 18,0ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="36" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 46,pot, overnm/tdndetd e nth="109" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 25,0ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="46" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 51,6ot, overnm/tdnde/trnde/tbodynde/dacus20in%d Rs 80,00 am

tacus10ms%20in%Tprod 10: perceaIally, rg/Essap> ons%20in%2overnm00 millioed tls"0,ms%20in%Wsges Andi> ,aPolred to mAndiMecurringcons%20in%2overnmdacus bo veg="1" milliolefti e nth="624" cellPsng)ng="9" cellSpinto ="1"ndetbodyndetrndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, .html#taR1, overnmbtdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, Agres it co, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, Ijoyment, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, r tse, overnm0> overgsb ontdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">Foodgemen1r&obr /0, oilod Com/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 81,4ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 8,4ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 89,8ot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">Sigexm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 34,0ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 15,50i, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 49,50i, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">Cott#ta& cott#taonthi t0obtdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 52,0ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 158,pot, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 210,pot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">Hoe es it com/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 163,pot, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 63,30i, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 226,30i, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">A

<nm00 millioed tls"0, 36,4ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 9,50i, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 45,90i, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">Seres it com/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 1,2ot, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 7,2ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 8,4ia, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">Fegementm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 16,pot, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop"> m/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 16,pot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">Fed ism/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 10,pot, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop"> m/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 10,pot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">Aleao.t Bosive m/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 112,pot, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop"> m/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 112,pot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">Wsgesm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 113,pot, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 75,0ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 188,pot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">>nm00 millioed tls"0, 393,pot, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 186,90i, overnm/tdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 579,90i, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">ab>rOTALm/b ontdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, 506,0ia, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, 261,9ia, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, 767,9ia, overnm0> overgsb ontdnde/trnde/tbodynde/dacus20in for the dairy ind Rs 80,00olds and fodder for the dairy ind Rs 80,00>s 80,00 for the dairy ind Rs 80,00 for the dairy ind Rs 80,00 for the dairy ind Rs 80,00 for the dairy ind Rs 80,00 for the dairy ind Rs 80,00 for the dairy ind Rs 80,00 for the dairy ind Rs 80,00 for the dairy ind Rs 80,00 for the dairy ind Rs 80,00 for the dairy ind Rs 80,00 for the dairy ind Rs 80,00 for the dairy ind Rs 80,00 for the dairy ind Rs 80,00 for the dairy indob>Tprod 11m

t11:aEals: rCredel#taineAgres it coieet >tio-Ifor ru thobiasatbbiaso two decades at about 3.2 kg per year. m/tdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, Unskityeda& Semi-skityed, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, Skityed, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, Technicse, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, T tse, overnm0> overgsb ontdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="34%" vAmillioeop">Hoe es it comC HYVvsap> ,aPolred to , Se retional requ& Mecurringontdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 6,170,0ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 120,0ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 37,0ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 6,327,pot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="34%" vAmillioeop">Sigex m/tdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 3,2ia,0ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 18a,0ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 20,0ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 3,400,pot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="34%" vAmillioeop">Cott#ta& onthi t0obtdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 10,potssed, overnm/tdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 8,880,0ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 120,0ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 19,0ia,pot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="34%" vAmillioeop">A

<, F Buaf oficnatcherike,u& arcurringm/tdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 782,50i, overnm/tdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 53,75a, overnm/tdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 281,25a, overnm/tdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 1,117,50i, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="34%" vAmillioeop">Mulberry c HYVvsap> for silkm/tdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 172,0ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 2,0ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 1,50i, overnm/tdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 175,50i, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="34%" vAmillioeop">Seres it com/tdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 518,0ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 3,0ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 2,0ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 523,pot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="34%" vAmillioeop">Fegementaeet fed ism/tdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 4,potssed, overnm/tdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop"> m/tdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop"> m/tdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 4,potssed, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="34%" vAmillioeop">Feodgemen1r& oilod Com/tdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 7,potssed, overnm/tdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop"> m/tdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop"> m/tdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 7,potssed, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="34%" vAmillioeop">se pre& o.t Bom/tdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 13,500,0ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 20tssed, overnm/tdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop"> m/tdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 13,7otssed, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="34%" vAmillioeop">ab>rOTALm/b ontdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, 45,342,50i, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, 9,438,75a, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, 461,75a, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd e nth="16%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, 55,243,0ia, overnm0> overgsb ontdnde/trnde/tbodynde/dacus20in for the dairy ind Rs 80,00olm consistssistssistsds and fsists/sists/sists/sists/80,00 aT.cus 12: Capitse Rear reb nt1et two decades at about 3.2 kg per year.nm00 millioed tls"0, m

t12ab>,000 millioed tls"0, Agres it co, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, Ijoymentu& Mecurring, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, T tse, overnm0> overgsb ontdnde/trndetrndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">Feodgemene& eilod Com/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">nm00 millioed tls"0, 20,0eiaf, overnm00 millioed tls"0, 25s wilr, overnmbtdndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 42,0eiaf, overnm00 millioed tls"0, 4,2ialr, overnmbtdndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 62,0eiaf, overnm00 milliorn in"0, 29,2ialr, overnmbtdnde/trndetrndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">Cott#ta& Tnthi t0obtdndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 9,6otaf, overnm00 millioed tls"0, 35s wilr, overnmbtdndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 273,potaf, overnm00 millioed tls"0, 35s wilr, overnmbtdndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 282,6otaf, overnm00 milliorn in"0, 70,0ialr, overnmbtdnde/trndetrndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">Sigexm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 3,2iaaf, overnm00 millioed tls"0, 36s wilr, overnmbtdndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 105,potaf, overnm00 millioed tls"0, 12,potlr, overnmbtdndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 108,2iaaf, overnm00 milliorn in"0, 48,0ialr, overnmbtdnde/trndetrndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">Hoe es it com/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 4,400af, overnm00 millioed tls"0, 48,4ialr, overnmbtdndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 45,50iaf, overnm00 millioed tls"0, 23,4ialr, overnmbtdndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 49,90iaf, overnm00 milliorn in"0, 71,8otlr, overnmbtdnde/trndetrndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">A

<,000 millioed tls"0, 50,0eiaf, overnm00 millioed tls"0, 37,50ilr, overnmbtdndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 15,400af, overnm00 millioed tls"0, 2,1ialr, overnmbtdndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 65,400af, overnm00 milliorn in"0, 39,6otar, overnmbtdnde/trndetrndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">Seres it com/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 4otaf, overnm00 millioed tls"0, 1,50ilr, overnmbtdndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 4,8otlf, overnm00 millioed tls"0, 1,8ialr, overnmbtdndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 5,2iaaf, overnm00 milliorn in"0, 3,30iar, overnmbtdnde/trndetrndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">Fegementa& fed ism/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 37,8otlf, overnm00 millioed tls"0, 52,8ialr, overnmbtdndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">mbtdndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 33,8otlf, overnm00 milliorn in"0, 52,8otlr, overnmbtdnde/trndetrndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">se pre& o.t Bosive m/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 114,0ia, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 29,7ia, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 143,7ia, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd hen in="36" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">ab>rOTALm/b ontdndetd hen in="36" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, 475,6ot, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd hen in="36" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, 593,9ia, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd hen in="36" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 milliorn in"0, 1,065,50i, overnm0> overgsb ontdnde/trndetrndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, Est. annus, samateu>: rfor 8th Plan (1992-1997), overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 57ssedobr /0, 3.6% a. w50%, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, ~ 244ssed, overnm00 millioed tls"0, 15.4% a. w50%, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 1,584,pot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, Annus, samateu>: rfor p,000 millioed tls"0, 48ssed, overnm00 millioed tls"0, 84% a. 8th w50% annus, samateu>: rfor agres it co, overnm/tdndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, 60ssedobr /0, 25% a. 8th w50% annus, samateu>: rfor ijoyment, overnmbtdndetd hen in="60" e nth="20%" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 107ssedobr /0, 7% a. bltse annus, w50% samateu>: overnmbtdnde/trnde/tbodynde/dacus20in for the dairy ind Rs 80,00tssistssistsds and fsists/sists/ernm00 millio dairy indT.cus 13: Financise Rear reb nt1eFeg 2poteHoe es it comPole crs 20Indipgovernmdacus bo veg="1" e nth="720" cellPsng)ng="9" cellSpinto ="1"ndetbodyndetrndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">,000 millioed tls"0, Mhtml#taR1o

t13ab>,000 millioed tls"0, Non-recurringo overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, Rbcurringo overnm0> overgsb ontdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">C HYVvsap> m/tdndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 8,0ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 45,50i, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">Technicse cellm/tdndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 4,50i, overnm/tdndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 2,40i, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">Mexpand operations to m/tdndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 15,0ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 6,2ia, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">Polred to mw50% h (2pot)m/tdndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 28,0ia, overnm/tdndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 11,8ot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">Hybride s reutetsr(1ot)m/tdndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 2,50i, overnm/tdndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 3,pot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">ab>rOTAL gsb ontdndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 milliorn in"0, 58,1ia, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd e nth="33%" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 milliorn in"0, 68,9ia, overnm0> overgsb ontdnde/trnde/tbodynde/dacus20idacus bo veg="1" e nth="722" cellPsng)ng="9" cellSpinto ="1"ndetbodyndetrndetd colSpin="2" e nth="700" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millio dairy ind m

tacus14 overgsb nm00 milliorn in"0, in Mhtml#taR1, overnmbtdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="354" vAmillioeop">Grosssinuly, stratc HYVvsap> ontdndetd e nth="324" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 184pot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="354" vAmillioeop">Grosssinuly, stratsaly a. qolred ust effortobtdndetd e nth="324" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 163pot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="354" vAmillioeop">Grosssinuly, strathybride s rsobtdndetd e nth="324" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 236t, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="354" vAmillioeop">Netsinuly, stratc HYVvsap> ontdndetd e nth="324" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 138pot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="354" vAmillioeop">NetsInuly, stratsaly a. qolred ust effortobtdndetd e nth="324" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 576ot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="354" vAmillioeop">Hybride s rsobtdndetd e nth="324" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 173t, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd e nth="354" vAmillioeop">ab>r tse netsinuly, gsb ontdndetd e nth="324"0vAmillioeop">ab>,000 milliorn in"0, 197,33a, overnm0> overgsb ontdnde/trnde/tbodynde/dacus20in for the dairy ind Rs 80,00olds and fodder for the dairy indTprod 15:aEals: rrg/Essap> aine2poteHoe es it comPole crs 20Indipgovernmdacus bo veg="1" e nth="594" cellPsng)ng="9" cellSpinto ="1" hen in="310"%detbodyndetrndetd hen in="30" e nth="272"0vAmillioeop">ab>o

t15ab>,000 milliorn in"0, Unskityed, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd hen in="30" e nth="211" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, Skityed, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd hen in="30" colSpin="2" e nth="7" vAmillioeop">ab>,000 millioed tls"0, Technicseu& Menagerise, overnm0> overgsb ontdnde/trndetrndetd hen in="14Fera labo ontdndetd hen in="14,000 milliorn in"0, 6,potssed, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd hen in="15" e nth="272"0vAmillioeop">Technicseontdndetd hen in="15" e nth="141"0 milliorn in" vAmillioeop">8,pot atdndetd hen in="15" e nth="211">,000 milliorn in"0, 12,0ia, overnm/tdndetd hen in="15" colSpin="2" e nth="7">,000 milliorn in"0, 5,sed, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd hen in="15" e nth="272"0vAmillioeop">Mexpand op& Di ru b

ontdndetd hen in="15" e nth="141"0 milliorn in" vAmillioeop">40,pot atdndetd hen in="15" colSpin="2" e nth="121" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 40,0ia, overnm/tdndetd hen in="15" e nth="177" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 3,pot, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd hen in="15" e nth="272"0vAmillioeop">Retail--50,0eiaou atdndetd hen in="15" colSpin="2" e nth="121" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 50,0ia, overnm/tdndetd hen in="15" e nth="177" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 5,sed, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd hen in="15" e nth="272"0vAmillioeop">Polred to --2potew50% hontdndetd hen in="15" e nth="141"0 milliorn in" vAmillioeop">50,pot atdndetd hen in="15" colSpin="2" e nth="121" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 17,0ia, overnm/tdndetd hen in="15" e nth="177" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 7,sed, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd hen in="15" e nth="272"0vAmillioeop">Hybride s rs--1otew50% hontdndetd hen in="15" e nth="141"0 milliorn in" vAmillioeop">70,pot atdndetd hen in="15" colSpin="2" e nth="121" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 20,0ia, overnm/tdndetd hen in="15" e nth="177" vAmillioeop">,000 milliorn in"0, 1tssed, overnm/tdnde/trndetrndetd hen in="15" e nth="272"0vAmillioeop">ab>rOTALm/b ontdndetd hen in="15" e nth="141"0 milliorn in">ab>6,168,pot and atdndetd hen in="15" e nth="211"0 milliorn in">ab>,000 milliorn in"0, 150,0ia, overnm0> overgsb ontdndetd hen in="15" colSpin="2" e nth="7"0 milliorn in">ab>,000 milliorn in"0, 30,0ia, overnm0> overgsb ontdnde/trnde/tbodynde/dacus20in for theed tls"0, Rs 80,00olds and fodder for theed tls"0,Footnotes 20Indiolndili>o

erat1 ,a1990,t eepar C byoShe Standto mAdvisory Committeerfor She Minimentaa. Agres it co.lds gsb onli>dili>o

erat2: rn cbh, erationede sctor has decelEssayde harply duringcbh, seed t s ciod 1983-87, a s ciod n cwhich ijoyment was sly,what deregulsaydeeet libEsslons to cuaop><, were ijitisayd. Publice sctor eals: rgrew s%20inly over She past 15 years at about 3% s caannum, b: rcoupyedawith lowetional rvittaa. publice sctor e tlsprises. Privdere sctor eals: rdideno/ tiow sr tificsntly duringcbhTog ciod. In add) Rs ,cbh,re has actus,ot been a declinern cbh, labo rn or bottaa. outp: reet Socise Skg pers,cTh, World Bank,a1989. p.xxxiii.) onli>dili>o

erat3: reet Socise Skg pers,cxxviii. Giowth n cfeodgemenetional requTogunlikeot It meeroShe demeet fer new job credel#taineuutiliar as becausy a. a or denct Itward n cred to mmechtiondel#t. onli>dili>o

erat4: ,guneals: reet poverty tbigb"juston a study connal edrfor She Commid t#taine1991 byoM. C. Verma at She %20ton Councilrfor Research #taInorrna Rs 58,Eive tic Rela Rs s. onli>dili>o

erat5<, us0rin cbhTog a c. onli>dili>o

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erat7Alearupe, figp><, for She curr>: ryearaeet fut comqole crRs s for She yeara2poteare ije1991 prices. onli>dili>o

erat8: ra. four Minimentaa. Agres it cot eepar C ije1987, She grosssirrn saydeeredawill n cred eabyo15 It 18a.html#tah cra><, It over 70a.html#tabyoyeara2poteaet She grossssivepydeeredawill n cred eabyo12a.html#tah cra><,. (p.46) onli>dili>o

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erat10: rqole crRs for yeara2poten clud<, tn estimsayaa. 12a.html#taadd) Rs 58,j20h saoShe de preijoyment b"juston qole crRs s workusto: rBoard. onli>dili>o

erat11<, nt1epdili>o

erat12: raogsaosly, sta Rstics. onli>dili>o

erat13 aa. four taChamblss a. Commercea& Iaoyment,a1991. onli>dili>o

erat14<, ofiirrn sarequqotenndiliduringc1992-97. onli>dili>ou>So

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erat16: reet Socise Skg pers,cp. 177. onli>dili>o

erat17Se rINDIA:uPoverty,aEals: reet Socise Skg pers,cp. 175 for She p aa. She popula Rs ubeloweShe poverty linerbyosta r. onli>dili>o

erat18: rSitusel#tainefour : A Study for She Inorrna Rs 58,Commid t#taOquPeaceaAndiFeod",oM. C. Verma, %20ton Councilrfor Research #taInorrna Rs 58,Eive tic rela Rs s,a1991,a1t. onli>dili>o

erat19dili>o

erat20 ,"abyoR. P.aAneja, Financise Ex ress,aAprila2p,a1991,ap. 7. onli>dili>o

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erat23: rA

<:uPotenndiliyee It b Saepyd,"abyoGur haron Sto h Kai% h n cFinancise Ex ress,aAprila2p,a1991. onli>dili>o

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erat27: rPole cr",oineVoluy, II. onli>dili>o

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erat29: r.motheries for Agres it cotTjeTa.ht Nadu",o eepar C byoCARDS,eTa.ht NadueAgres it cseuUnrversity,a1991. onli>dili>o

erat30 ,aineVoluy, II. onli>dili>o

erat31<, TjeTarod 1 tbigb"juston PlanningcCommid t#t estimsays cit C ijeEive tic Survey,a1990-91,ap.10,ceet inefNDIA:uEive tic InformsarequYearbook,a1989-90,t .54.cTh, World Bank mak<, Tjorrna Rs 58,ulyparisle1 b"juston twt ctherorike a. poverty,aa hn i eet loweronge.cTh, Bank ctherorines 55% a. four 's popula Rs --252a.html#t--as pooraeet 33%--157a.html#t--as nthreb ly poor.cTh, World Developu>: rRe arer1990,t .29. onli>dili>o

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erat35: rgg/Essap> ai1 b"juston thigassuyp req Shat eachmpoet a. .04ah cra><, ise sparsayly ownydeeet opEssaydebyoShe ownyreaet Sho e add) Rs 58,labo ers. onli>dili>o

erat36<, nt aeproximsayly 50%a(Rs 775,0eia.html#t)aa. She bltse ctherory agres it co, limateock,af Buerike,ufegementaeet minto , which tbigtioup C Itgett BobyoShe governu>: ri cuaop><, a. GDP. Im areant it m, no/ n clud asive , spiceh eet connib nt1, marinerf Buerike eet agres it cseuby-tional s. onli>di/olndipgovernmblockquote>00 a Assuyto mde preoutp<, nt1eioughly 27% a. bhns att Botioupa(Rs 257sseda.html#tais She actus,eoutp: rBoard,a.htketional requTogentel edrIt n cred eabyo36% duringcbh, decadea(Rs 70,7iaa.html#taa. .htkeaer1990 pricesgassuyto mmhtkeeep><, nt1e76% a. bltse de preijuly, eet Rs 56,50ilvaluyaadded b"juston 80%aa. rbovyues).aAssuyto mShat aleao.t Bo sctore a. bhns tioupatiow at 2.4% annus,ly (She breet ssay for agres it cotfor She past 25 years),cbh,y woult conru bnmblockquote>00 a Thomqole crRs aa. 13.5a.html#taadd) Rs 58,j20h saoo.t Bofieldsen clud<, 5.8a.html#tafor .htketional requ(seerfootnote 43)eeet 7.66a.html#tafor o.t Bo sctore (b"juston thigavEssge add) Rs 58,GDP for eachmnew job n c/ from theilia. Rs 18,0ial(seerdacus 9).rPole crRs s byoNDDBab"juston cield studike a. man-hours s caanimsl s cadayosuggest/Shat thigjob estimsays for de premay b Soo low, srnceaadd) Rs 58,eals: rn cde prealonnmblockquote>00 a o

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erat38erat39erat40nmolndip0 millio dairy ind  R overnm00 millioleftind 41. o

erat41: r66% hare,cbh, figp>< for cott#tawill riseeIt Rs 330,0eia.html#tabyo2pot. Feg ctlculsaRo mentens earnto s, we havigassuy,d actus,eachibovu>: ra. only 75% a. bhns level, Rs 250,0ei.aAssuyto m10%avaluyaadded a. ex ensivon cott#ta(10%aa. ex ensi),a80%aan yarta(10%aa. ex ensi),a240%aan cloth (50%aa. ex ensi) eet 4se%aan gjabent1 (30%aa. ex ensi) with tn avEssge cloth valuyaa. Rs 2a s ca. tls for cloth eet Rs 50 s ca. tls for gjabent msaynis,, ex ensivwoult absorb She equival>: ra. 66%aa. She n cred eain/cloth tional req,ci.e 660il.html#taf tlss (or 5seda. tlss for She entens levelgassuy,d Tjeour qole crRs s). overnm/olndiblockquote>00 a 42. o

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erat43: rssay, (i.e. avEssge 18% over 10 years). NDDBaqole crs Shat thigijoyment will tg/Essay,170,0iaa.html#tahours a. eals: rn c2pot AD oBoioughly 11.6a.html#taadd) Rs 58,j20h. We havigassuy,d Shat add) Rs 58,standard s cson years ns anly 50%aa. bhns level.R overnm00 millio dairy ind Th, ctherory a. semi-skityed workursen clud<, cjabssupervisorh eet c HYVvsaorh. Feg sta Rsticsl surpos<, stuTogdiffes itaIt dRstingu Buabhns tioupastratunskityedafera labour. Feg a

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