Resources, Privileges and Underprivileged Communities


The general term ‘underprivileged community' (UPC) is applied to a large number of social groups, in fact to a majority of the human race. It is used to refer to ethnic, religious, cultural, social, political and economic groups. It is employed with reference to small minorities, regional linguistic groups, and even to nations as a whole. The same term is used to denote both primitive tribal communities which have remained isolated from the mainstream of modern civilization and communities which have been forcefully deprived of their heritage by the actions of a powerful adversary from within or outside their society.

Obviously any term which is used in so many different ways and to refer to so many different social situations loses something of its value as a concept for social scientists. This does not imply that any of the usages are wrong, only that a further classification is required for purposes of precision. This becomes of the utmost importance when the objective is to evolve strategies and recommend programmes to improve the social conditions of these people. Therefore we propose to examine this concept in detail, to categorize and subdivide the various groups falling under this broad heading to distinguish those whose condition arise from different causes and whose upliftment can be only brought about by different remedies.

Relationship between Resources and Privileges

All the communities identified as UPCs share a single characteristic: they lack a privilege, right, advantage or benefit which other communities possess. But in all cases the privilege which is lacking and the reason for the deficiency are not the same. On closer examination we discover that the privileges are many and the causes of the deficit are many too.

Privilege is based on the possession of or access to a resource - physical, social or psychological. Those who possess the resource obtain a power or advantage from it which expresses as a benefit or privilege to that community. Those who do not possess or have access to the resource or are unable to utilize it lack the power and the privilege.

There is a commonly held notion that all UPCs have been the victims of conscious oppression and exploitation by more powerful and prosperous communities. But this is an erroneous and overly simplified view. Possession or access to a privilege may be the result of natural conditions such as geography or material resources. Those living in favorable habitats such as a fertile valley gain an adaptive advantage and develop faster and further than those living in less hospitable environments. Privilege also derives from social factors such as education. As educated population is able to respond more effectively to new life opportunities and new technologies. In addition to physical and social conditions, privilege is determined by cultural and psychological factors as well. For example, a community in which traits of individual initiative and risk-taking are dominant can avail of enormous opportunities open to the enterprising pioneer, whereas communities in which authority and social harmony are dominant values may be slower or innovate.

Four Types of UPCs

Possession of, access to and the capacity to utilize a physical, social or psychological resource may be acquired in several ways. Conversely, the lack of a resource which is the basis of underprivileged status may be the result of several conditions. The first, which has already been noted, is simply the coincidence of nature. Certain communities benefit from more advantageous natural or social conditions than others. These communities develop politically, economically, or socially at a more rapid pace; while the less fortunate, less privileged develop more slowly and remain backward or primitive. Note that in this case backwardness is not the result of any outside agency, but simply a natural condition.

The possession of any resource and the privilege it bestows tend to be accompanied by additional advantages. For instance, educational privilege generated by the proximity of a school opens better opportunities for employment and a higher status in society. Therefore we can speak of "compound privileges", advantages which provide multidimensional benefits to the privileged. Conversely, those who lack one basic privilege often lack a host of others as well. The educationally backward also tend to be economically and socially backward. When the factors contributing to backwardness are many - absence of material resources, absence of social infrastructure, absence of psychological capacities - we may refer to the community as "deprived". Here too the term is used in the passive sense and does not imply that someone has actively deprived this group.

But there are innumerable instances where a UPC is the direct object of discrimination by another group. A more privileged community which possesses or controls physical and social resources utilizes those resources for their own exclusive benefit and denies access to others. Certain groups are excluded from access to education, political office, high paying jobs, prestigious social positions, so that all benefits of these privileges are denied to them.

Finally there are instances where one community is consciously exploited for the benefit of another. One group is intentionally denied access to resources and privileges which others enjoy because the others obtain some direct advantage from that denial. Exploited UPCs are often dispossessed of resources like land which they once enjoyed or are victims of more violent forms of exploitation like enforced labour.

We have now identified four major categories of UPCs: Backward communities whose lack of a particular resource results in retarded development in a particular field; Deprived UPCs which lack several major resources and privileges available to others; Excluded UPCs which are intentionally denied certain resources and privileges; and Exploited UPCs which are oppressed for the benefit of another group.

Difficulties in Categorizing UPCs

In practice a particular community may fall in more than one of these categories with respect to different resources and at different points of time. For instance, in the 17th and 18th centuries the coastal tribes of Western Africa lagged far behind Europe in the development of technology. Consequently they were powerless against the modern weapons of European slave traders and were easily captured and transported to the New World to do forced labour. The Backward UPCs of Africa became then the Exploited UPCs in North America working on tobacco and cotton plantations in the southern colonies. About two hundred years later, after the American Civil War slavery was abolished and the more overt forms of exploitation were eliminated. The former slaves found themselves ostensibly free in a country thousands of miles from their homeland, but they lacked nearly all the resources necessary for development. They had neither land, nor capital, nor technology, nor education, nor skills. In many areas they were actively barred from schools and all but the most menial jobs. These people now became an Excluded UPC. During the last 30 years American society has attempted to improve the position of this minority by banning discrimination against blacks in schools and jobs and by an active programme of support through scholarships, business loans, and job reservations. Though racial discrimination has been outlawed, functional discrimination remains since a large proportion of black Americans lack the education, skills and experience required for access to higher levels of privilege. Moreover, several centuries of exploitation and discrimination by a hostile society have prevented the development of positive psychological resources and constructive social attitudes making achievement in this highly competitive society more difficult. What 300 years ago was a technologically and economically Backward UPC simply by virtue of its isolation from Europe has become a Deprived UPC as a result of exploitation by and exclusion from the society in which it lives.

This example illustrates the difficulty in categorizing UPCs. It points to the inadequacy of broad generalized explanations regarding the origin of underprivileged status in each particular case. It also underlines the need for evolving remedial strategies specifically tailored to the past experience and present circumstances of each particular group.

Privileges Derived from Physical Resources

The relationship between privileges and underprivileged communities can be examined in detail with reference to physical, social and psychological resources.

  • Geography: The most basic of all physical resources is natural geography. Some nations are blessed by protective features like mountains, deserts, rivers and oceans which provide a natural fortification for defense. Favourable geography can provide a military advantage over other people and communal security against attack. This power and security are forms of social privilege which bestow an adaptive advantage on the community which possesses them. Violent storms at sea destroyed two huge Mongolian fleets attempting invasion of Japan during the 13th century and for the following 600 years Japan's geographic isolation assured it freedom from any foreign threat until the arrival of the American fleet in 1854. This tranquil security enabled the Japanese to evolve a harmonious society and closely-knit national identity which were the basis for its rapid rise as a world power during the last century. England benefited by its geographic insulation from turmoils on the Continent, thereby enabling it to evolve into the first modern nation state.

Conversely there are many peoples exposed to the constant threat and scourge of war because of indefensible natural boundaries. Ancient Palestine was at the cross-roads of early civilization and was subjected to wave after wave of invasion and subjection which continues up to the present day. In other cases the disturbing factor may be climatic, such as periodic cyclones, floods or droughts. The absence of a stable and secure environment can deprive a people of the necessary basis for political, economic and social development, thereby creating a Deprived UPC.

Other geographic resources play a similar role. Natural infrastructure like a port, a river, proximity to a trade route can generate enormous economic benefits. In earlier centuries tiny nations like Holland and Belgium carried on a vast overseas trade and possessed larger colonial empires that their far bigger neighbor, Germany, whose access to the sea was more limited. Inland and landlocked countries in Eastern Europe which were deprived of the advantages of overseas trade, military mobility by sea, developed less than those bordering the Atlantic and Mediterranean.

Geographic advantage has been employed to monopolies other privileges. For centuries Western European powers monopolized the seas and the trade routes. It has also been used to oppress and exploit other peoples as in the forced transport of African tribals to the American colonies.

  • Land: Historically, possession of rich fertile land has been one of the major determinants of development. A large landmass permits unimpeded population growth and expansion of civilization. High per capita land holdings provide a basis for higher individual productivity and standard of living. The absence of good land results in economic backwardness, harsh living conditions, and emigration, e.g. desert nomad tribes like the Kalaharis and Bedouins. Insufficient landmass lends to crowding and congestion as in urban slums. Sri Lanka and Burmese repatriates of Tamil origin returning to India during the last decade constitute a landless UPC which lacks the productive base for development. Economic privilege is only one of the benefits of good land. Economic strength supports political and military power and the development of culture. The early centers of civilization were all located in fertile river valleys like the Nile, Ganges, and Cauvery. The absence of this one resource results in Deprived UPCs suffering from political, social and cultural as well as economic backwardness.

Monopolisation of land resources or revenues by one community leads to the concentration of wealth and political power in the hands of a landed aristocracy or zamindar class and forces those who are deprived to remain as landless labourers or tenant farmers. Political refugees such as the Armenians, Palestinians, Bengalis, Afgans and Cambodians form another category of landless UPCs. Land resources are more fully exploited by employing other groups to cultivate them in return for a bare sustenance. The resulting Exploited UPC is composed of serfs, slaves and bonded labour.

  • Other Natural Resources: In addition to land, other natural resources like water, forests, minerals and petroleum generate powers and privileges, and scarcity of any of them can form the basis for a UPC. In the past caste Hindus denied harijans access to water from community wells and tanks. Powerful large landholders monopolized water from an irrigation channel. White colonists in Africa monopolized the mineral wealth and exploited cheap black labour for mining. Tribal forest communities were expelled from their homelands by government or watched helplessly as the forests were cut down to feed paper mills or pave the way for new roads and settlements.
  • Physical and Social Infrastructure: Physical and social infrastructure facilities like roads, railways, power stations, schools, hospitals, markets, banks and recreation areas constitute another group of resources which confer a privilege on those who have ready access to them and deny an advantage to those who do not. Unlike the resources mentioned above, the location and distribution of these facilities is primarily determined by conscious choice, often by government and frequently with insufficient awareness of the impact of decisions on various social groups. Military factors and the primary aim of facilitating transport of raw materials for export were influential in determining the routes for major roads and railway lines in British colonies. Those communities fortunate enough to fall on or near the main routes enjoyed a great stimulus for development provided by the opening of distant markets and access to new information, new products, and new ways of life.

The presence of one infrastructure facility attracts others to the same site and bestows compound privileges on the local community. For instance, the location of schools, hospitals, factories, markets and banks are all influenced by the location of roads. The absence of one infrastructure facility tends to generate a syndrome since it discourages the establishment of others, retards development and preserves backwardness. Rural areas are particularly susceptible due to low population density, lack of political organization, low income and wealth.

Privileges Derived from Social Resources

The distribution of social resources plays an equally important role in generating privileges and UPCs.

  • Biology: The most fundamental social resource is the biology of the human species which endowed the male with greater physical strength than the female and thereby created what some believe constitutes the largest UPC of all, women. In nearly every society women have enjoyed less social rights and privileges than men. Political, social, economic and even religious privileges accrue in far greater measure to men. Women are considered inferior for many occupations, e.g. political office, professions, business. Women are not only a Backward and Deprived group, but an Excluded and Exploited one too. They are denied equal social, legal and economic rights and opportunities such as education and equal pay for equal work. Some privileges are preserved exclusively for men; priests are men worldwide. Historically male domination has often become active exploitation as female slavery, prostitution, polygamy and the Hindu customs relating to dowry and marriage and widowhood.
  • Population: Another basic social resource is population size. A society with a large population obtains a military and economic advantage by virtue of sheer numbers, generating greater political or economic power for the group, though not necessarily for each of its members. Larger nations can achieve what smaller ones cannot. Larger ethnic, linguistic, religious and social groups can obtain greater privileges and impose their priorities, customs and beliefs on the larger body politic. Small groups with insufficient numbers may become politically, economically and socially deprived minorities without a voice. Frequently the dominant group reserves all privileges for itself and denies a minority access to resources as the caste Hindus excluded the harijans and tribes. In some cases minorities are actively exploited for the benefit of larger groups as the American Indians were by European settlers.
  • Organisation: The capacity of a community to organize for military, political or economic purposes is an invaluable social resource which tends to evolve along with other aspects of social development. The power for efficient utilization of human and material resources, for cooperation and coordination, for centralization and delegation of authority are social skills which generate social privileges. For instance, the commercial organization of the Parsis, Jews and Nattukottai Chettiars has enabled these tiny minorities to achieve high positions in commerce disproportionate to their size. At the same time there are other groups, some very large, which fail to utilize social opportunities because they lack the requisite organizational structure. Unorganised labour, particularly landless agricultural labourers, are unable to demand an economic wage from their employers or to carry effective weight with politicians for this reason. Unorganised groups easily become Excluded or Exploited UPCs. An entire class or caste may be denied access to remunerative employment and wages, political office and administrative posts. Unorganised blacks and women in USA were relegated to lower jobs and lower scales of pay. In some cases the social organization of an entire community may be destroyed by war and mass migration.
  • Education: In the present age the single most important resource is education. It generates greater power and privileges to those that possess it than capital. Education is the main lever for political, social and economic development. Historically certain nations, religious groups, classes and communities have developed this resource more than others and profited by the adaptive and innovative capacities it fosters.

The American colonists were primarily from educated classes in Europe. Even 100 years ago literacy in the USA was 80% and today almost twice as many American students go on to higher education as in any other country. Conversely some communities have been very late in developing systems of formal education, particularly in countries constituting the Third World. Where education did evolve, it was usually restricted to a small aristocratic class as in Europe or a priestly class as in India. The denial of education to women worldwide has been a major cause and expression of their inferior status in society.

  • Skills: Productive skills play a role similar to that of education but are confined to the economic sphere. This resource is transferred from generation to generation through formal training and informal apprenticeship. The quality of productive skills varies enormously from one group to another and is strongly influenced by group attitudes toward hard work, physical labour, and success. The farmers of Punjab, Coimbatore and Israel exemplify the economic advantages of this resource. Many UPCs are poor in productive skills, some have been denied access to higher order skills by other groups in society.
  • Technology: Application of technology for military, transport, production, communication, education, medicine and domestic convenience has generated new powers and privileges which have ushered in the modern industrial post-industrial age all over the world increasing military and productive power a thousand-fold, reducing the time required for transport and communication to a tiny fraction of what it was half a century ago, facilitating the dissemination of information and spread of education, eradicating famine and disease and doubling the average life-span in many nations, and providing the innumerable comforts and conveniences of modern life.

Yet alongside technologically advanced communities, there are others which have remained virtually untouched and unbenefitted by the technological revolution. In fact technology has widened the huge chasm separating them from the advancing mainstream of society. This technological deficiency may be the result of geographic isolation as it was for Japan and China in the last century. It is often the result of technological illiteracy resulting from the absence of another resource, education. Technological backwardness tends to be multidimensional, thereby producing technologically Deprived UPCs.

While certain types of modern technology such as the car, radio, TV, and various heavy industries like steel, power, textiles, cement, paper have spread worldwide; other types of advanced technology remain the exclusive possession of the privileged and are withheld from others to preserve an economic or military advantage by limiting competition. Legal safeguards like patents have been introduced which preserve this exclusivity. Historically Exploited UPCs have been prevented from acquiring new technology, so they would be forced to depend on the privileged. Colonial India, for instance, was prevented from establishing an industrial base, so it would have to buy industrial goods from Britain.

  • Capital: Capital is commonly considered the most important of all social resources, a position we have already ascribed to education. The importance attributed to capital undoubtedly arises from the huge amounts of this resource which all privileged communities possess. Yet in reality capital has been much more the result of development than the cause. Capital is generated in the process of development by the increasing energy and efficiency of economic activity.

Nevertheless, capital is a basic social resource, the possession of which permits the owner access to every other resource and most social privileges. Communities deprived of this resource are often deprived of higher education, social respectability, legal rights, political influence and a just return for their labour as well. Most of the returns from production accrue to capital, not to labour; thereby maintaining a dual class structure. The poor are denied access to financial institutions and cannot borrow money because they have none. Economist Arthur Lewis argues that the abundance of cheap labour in low income countries willing to work for subsistence level wages generates e countries rk for subsistnone. Economisborrow monnonsdz also virtualelp keepth respework for ss ted in the prounable to uties. Ced or Eexploit s as in the forge, whicthe estaetail wucatist impis a devemic nd social development, therebyies depriveges Derived from Physical Resources

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      Thstnethe moih tends to evolvh as per socialsoue dedl resourher leve pave revo to remain aby gro. Unlike the rhers eakth es Der/tdDer/PrDerPrDerPi>th="103" vAkrgn="top"Derive 5.r thF to festrib es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctistrib es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctistrib es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctistrib es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctistrib es Der/tdDer/PrDerPrDerPi>th="103" vAkrgn="top"Derive 6.r thMm generstrib es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctistrib es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctistrib es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctistrib es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctiOPhee t-ry loited cheap isiize me cos and the trabs n rulductivources s a worllls oups asy i, prwrica monopolized the mineg es Derive mosntehee t-r r mining. Tribal fe fit of larget commub es Der/tdDer/PrDerPrDerPi>th="103" vAkrgn="top"Derive 7.r thPnfrastructure: Physi-S, a rivehee t-g es Derive a.ines in British cog es Derive b.hf a lg es Derive c. factorig es Derive d.s, marketsg es Derive all ig es Derive f.enced g es Derive prstitute ang es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctivPhee t-rize atute anommu the basismarily determin thossr developho have ready aenioreflesal safe, the loLe absence oily determiwar and ms choice, ofor economic purposel development, therebyimportanrn coly nd delegation of ade route can ges for rre all evelecheapyare others whietcen es Derive mosntehee t-r results in thea por-ends to generate a and preserves backwardness. Rural areas are particularly susceptible due to low population density, lack of political organization, low income and wealth.

      Privileg es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctiCPhee t-rtnfrastructure facility attracts others to the same site and privileges on the local communoited Uo calied btlyl cultly sus thise all influe ms choicsds. The absence ol, power, , markets, banks and rnced hietcen es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctistrib es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctistrib es Der/tdDer/PrDer/PgrouDer/PriviDerive ges Derive ges Derive ges DerPrivilic and="1"natllPher ng="0"natllSphysng="0"DerPgrouDerPrDerPi>th="98" vAkrgn="top"Derive  g es Derive RESOURCESg es Der/tdDerPi>th="127" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctivi diff

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      All thee g es Derive mos ten preventehee b es Der/tdDer/PrDerPrDerPi>th="98" vAkrgn="top"Derive B.r thSOCIALstrib es Derive 1. t fundow ig es Der/tdDerPi>th="127" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctivPhee t-r.opety. th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctiCPhee t-ra purposel developmc development.eges accrue in far greater measunsiderible natural. Mostbimay be thebecome aceg es Derive mosntehee t-rwinferior for many occupations, e.g. political office, professions, business. Women are not only g es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctiEPhee t-rortsffar greate for men; men woice, prowide. Historically male dg es Derive mosntehee t-rwinfer legal and economic rights and opportunities such as education aice, prng famine anork. Somsg es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctiOPhee t-roften become actC as ashener politdas as inme ac.b es Der/tdDer/PrDerPrDerPi>th="98" vAkrgn="top"Derive 2prPock of pog es Der/tdDerPi>th="127" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctivPhee t-rae population obtains a military and economic advantage by virtue of sheer numbers, generating greater political or economic power for the group, though not necessa (each of its members.ain y and y and stzed tit) achieve what sma(USA, USSR,the la,entury,st dec)aller ones cannot. Larger ethnic, linguistic, samelopmentasses and communw becomemdg es Derive mosntehee t-rsufficient numbers may become politicalC as a voice. Frequently the domice, prsufficasses ah hietd pouch asitical of greater ,rsufficnal office, prns. sd suPakccess g es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctiCPhee t-rs of mEurope ologicagiesme te ms choicsdhe hands of a la

      T ms choicsdy virtue of sheer niss onomisboffie absence oilesl Des all privilsties, customs and belieflarger body politic. Small groups with ig es Derive mosntehee t-rsufficient nueconomically and socially depriv,inorities without g es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctiEPhee t-rortsves all privileges for itself and denieg 60, the not. Unminoriwhe, prd the harijaan es Derive mosntehee t-rti. Thecome actag. Thitivources ient numhe the bmunerative employmenwe have ae, prng faminebers.SCieg 60STg es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctintehee t-rivources icicafit of largeroup.

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    • Organisb es Der/tdDer/PrDerPrDerPi>th="98" vAkrgn="top"Derive e capacity og es Der/tdDerPi>th="127" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctivPhee t-rwer and pror economic purposel developmef a laing and ith and polit,on of human and materi,or centralizationcial skills wwhe, prdon of the Parsis, Jews and Nattukottai Chettiars has enabled these tiinoritieaachieve high yitions in coa, stiies sivilegeonate toeg es Derive mosntehee t-runr politdaient nual opporaortuniti because they lack twhe, prunr politdaribal fol oess iage from their employer g es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctiCPhee t-rRnom'stive power a thn, low income and weaminorities tmatial ss strgve resotary mobiempiify theximity of developmefs. Butie dcesth="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctiEPhee t-rr politdaient nue UPCs.ihey and pA lare, prow Women a greuildseg es Derive mosntehee t-rn, prunr politda voice. Fres, ane by EuroUSA werere e UPCs. Acesth="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctiOPhee t-rn densi.opety. ntire communimany Aess ad mass migice, prPcross-roarArmeniasb es Der/tdDer/PrDerPrDerPi>th="98" vAkrgn="top"Derive 4ain lever fg es Der/tdDerPi>th="127" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctivPhee t-raogy,ity by banknowledgerwer and prdevelopment, he hands of a ltribes ere primarily from educated classes in Europe. Even 100 years ago atute e, sgociety Europe. Encduriss hd Ney on didg es Derive mosntehee t-rsnomiient nu Arthuroghee more tother countryesse ang neas. Technologi, prhe American col g es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctiCPhee t-rhfined to t as ash disnieion toporaself and denie>Technot-ra purposel onomic rge by virtueth es Derive mosntehee t-rlin ecEurope. Eere e UPCs. Acesth="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctiEPhee t-rsnomiient nuand is well. M ee in aortsf a laien. Politicaer meathe lasng famine an, prBrahmilinflue itsitio of educah es Derive mosntehee t-rcommunw nerative employmr grether countorturivil>Techno an, prpean setde consose commRaj,. In some cases miand rry socg es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctiOPhee t-rknowledgerexploanomiceome it s as in the fprwell anionlls oups asice, prowide.lyrd thereg es Derive mosntehee t-rdgnr ll parete fit of l revoluEurope. sb es Der/tdDer/PrDerPrDerPi>th="98" vAkrgn="top"Derive 5.lay a rolounve skictistrib es Der/tdDerPi>th="127" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctivPhee t-rhe group, thou an, prpean setyearnd phe minprnd IsrCoimbateg es Derive mosntehee t-rgndi.ssvelopmentient nuanourerially depriveliving c g es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctiCPhee t-rhe group, thoug stion ofry power and tas educ stiens, aen es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctiEPhee t-reuilds banrs ago l aristocratheneration s varies enormously frtial ss strgve and thy.b es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctistrib es Der/tdDer/PrDerPrDerPi>th="98" vAkrgn="top"Derive 6wardness tends g es Derive a.iive poweg es Derive b.hication tg es Derive c. capital, g es Derive d.siny fraction oge byg famine aad of educag es Derive e.reudiselg es Derive"127" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctivPhee t-rtced poses, thereackwaive lrecnsid limitin upanouco aagoice,lucnised b also e they lack twhximity of en. Womeepportuniton accrue to capital, cidmrable tother cou instss thds, bpower in ttable estss thds and Nke the rtal. Ed occsice, pr its ge'sam Britain. technologyth es Derive mosntehee t-rlike the reshurogtal. Eduathey would be f main behinrom otherseconomic wmore doby limiti socially depriveorrdon of theliice, prhe last century.n thronof l repolized the setyea19th followieg es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctiCPhee t-rtdness tends tesource. Mad s. pofwhicmensi it snhherelf and denie>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctiEPhee t-rhey would be f esunbene to preserve an economic or military advantage by limiting competition. Legal safeguards like patents have been introducedivity. Histntiapcg es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctiOPhee t-rwould be f icicafit of large become s and and is stmore priviaing and y limitine g grsoa. th="98" vAkrgn="top"Derive 7ed in theb es Der/tdDerPi>th="127" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctivPhee t-rocial rer meass. Unlike the rtal. Edusoiteyst social prist-rofr coop,rof an entsce may be acqu- pencet of tefeprecnsimained vto egeorn techient ner power and prdevelopmefsand deneg es Derive mosntehee t-rganizatiten deprived olishingss. Historically certaig es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctiCPhee t-rocial rerAesswer and prdevelopmenthe hands ofity of any i, pry and eturn foisiizecheapyamla,eDeprivolueachallerrunal and economi, businth es Derive mosntehee t-rlike tganiso t and eprived of hiducation, sog. potherebyies deprivy i, pr ial respectability, legal rights, political influenc g es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctiEPhee t-rocial resou and the trabs n is stmhe thclaims.ain y anton accr allcial res a wororitflue mies aocial rer mumlitary a Unlike the reshurogeducatiotal. Educath es Derive mosntehee t-rion accrue to capital, not to labour; theeby maintainin a dual class structure poor are denied access to financial institutions and cannot borrow money because they have none. Economist Arthur Lewthat the abuncitn aortsubsistnone. Economisbo also fn enefilitaue toLDCsrn densi. Most y htainin cacks g es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctiOPhee t-rocial resouexploanomi though noc purposel development, therebys as inme ac.b es Derive mosntehee t-rlin ss to fincafit of ltial tioned eachaeacheOth es Der/tdDer/PrDer/PgrouDer/PriviDerive ges DerPrivilic and="1"natllPher ng="0"natllSphysng="0"DerPgrouDerPrDerPi>th="118" vAkrgn="top"Derive  g es Derive RESOURCESg es Der/tdDerPi>th="107" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctivi diff

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      All thee g es Derive mos ten preventehee b es Der/tdDer/PrDerPrDerPi>th="118" vAkrgn="top"Derive C.r thPSYCHOLOGICALstrib es Derive 1. E of economdynr tsmg es Der/tdDerPi>th="107" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctivPhee t-rabour itr, of ecinomi though > Tht oa sesoneds whs to et of loibched f socan e they lacs s a w and risk-taking areunip scateeriodicfor thons, aive a peopleiffg on an class loibched f socivd scourge of war bue to wombybrtie arrhry bas pof prec economicesourcesyfes oang. Theecomatal i Thenonostnd nrtilne. Ec op may rwork fory Pry basant threat scourge o stlearculentioned nd Isrisprivieducaolonial and suion whichlast decically ct and eprived os and imposabour in en es Derive mosntehee t-r raeaceful aedhas al bemarrortuniasy Thenllerr than as bemarror living condi. desicons to ts a evelopyfes oseg es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctiCPhee t-rtnl privileged communamounts of and secure st social pristwer and praef a lainatrand Depri camod prdorv flecly aspurprmmerceer of ein ctagc advantage by virtue o

      Nee mabsence of egeonathe local communog es Derive mosntehee t-rganizatie of e,vdynr tsmeonomtaking are r than as sh. entain nrnsiblcally certaig es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctiEPhee t-rtnl privilegedsou and the trabs like the rrightobtains an are cniti becausaign th,rwell all,riaaign thrcesse and risk-taking arelcally cth es Derive mosntehee t-rlike tancial developmenthe hands oaign thraucateng new technology, so t and eprived ofencetmabsence of ies deprivy i, prntstance, and Belgn inpean ,rti. Thecometda voice. Fres, an In some caseUSA we g es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctiOPhee t-re of economdynr tsmoetail wetitierecit s as in ch as eoy thstnd thr iswithpropoe.h es Derive mosntehee t-rlike tganiso ty of ecorvdynr tsmeofincd or E becomemdeoples as inigice, prc op may rwork foryb es Der/tdDer/PrDerPrDerPi>th="118" vAkrgn="top"Derive 2ed onons a/a>th="107" vAkrgn="top"Derive As and dsg es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive  g es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive  g es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive  g es Der/tdDer/PrDerPrDerPi>th="118" vAkrgn="top"Derive 3.lHvaluesa/a>th="107" vAkrgn="top"Derive ctivPhee t-rlogicagiesle withary nd y and stzef socivde tork.n reality cap of sdap arelof sheer niss Yllees makatal, essolation trimratrr thonsmtieeas.therebyinters dsouains lyal rior mble s a worlmmercic activiteg es Derive mosntehee t-rg. polst swasera there anal officible due to lers monom Britain. oouny ve se resulttiiss hltsare poor g es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive  g es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive  g es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive  g es Der/tdDer/PrDerPrDerPi>th="118" vAkrgn="top"Derive 4prPcginotirot/a>th="107" vAkrgn="top"Derive As and dsg es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive  g es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive  g es Der/tdDerPi>th="122" vAkrgn="top"Derive  g es Der/tdDer/PrDer/PgrouDer/PriviDerive ges Derive ges Derive ges Der of Derinply ype="ly ton"for so="ome Page" onip PCy HoitePer " ooClick="wiary .agoi(' Page" o_ip PCy','_rori');" />
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