Theory of Development


Theory of Development

by Garry Jacobs, Robert Macfarlane, and N. Asokan

[presented to Pacific Rim Economic Conference, Bangkok, Jan 13-18, 1998]

 

  1. Introduction
  2. Observations and Questions about Recent Development Experience
  3. Theory as a Revealer of Potentials
    1. Untapped Opportunities
    2. Barriers to Development
      1. Perceptual Walls & Apparent Dead Ends
      2. Outmoded Attitudes
      3. Anachronisms
    3. Overcoming Human Barriers
    4. Central Thesis
      1. Human Centered Approach
      2. Survival, Growth and Development
      3. Unconscious versus Conscious Development
      4. Natural versus Planned Development
      5. Green Revolution
  4. Emergence of New Activities in Society
    1. Social Preparedness for Development
      1. Awareness
      2. Aspiration
    2. Initiation -- Role of the Pioneer in Development
      1. Multiplier Effect
    3. Acceptance and Assimilation -- Organizing New Social Activities
      1. Education
      2. Organization Matures into Institution
      3. Cultural Transmission by the Family
    4. Integration of Organization with Society
    5. Power of Authority
    6. Organizations are the Skills of Society
    7. Complexity of Organization
    8. Values as the Ultimate Determinant
    9. Role of Government in Organization
  5. Infrastructure
  6. Resources
    1. The Human Resource
    2. Process of Individual Development
  7. Three Stages of Social Development
  8. Contribution of Three Components to Development
    1. The Role of Organization in the Three Stage
  9. Population and Urbanization
  10. The Role of Money in Development
    1. Money as an Organization
  11. Restatement of the Theory
  12. The Role of Knowledge in Social Organization
    1. Education
    2. Technology
    3. Internet
    4. Internet's Four-fold Infrastructure
    5. Organizational Power of the Internet
  13. Applications
  14. What are the Limits?
  15. List of principles
  16. Issues


Introduction

Despite 50 years of development experience, fundamental questions remain unanswered. The world still lacks a comprehensive theoretical framework that adequately explains such phenomenon as the accelerating velocity of development exhibited by East Asian countries, the failure of Malthusian projections, the growing contribution of non-material resources not subject to depletion, the apparent failure of market policies in the transition of Eastern Europe, and conflicting predictions about the future of work based on the contrary recent experiences of North America and Western Europe. A profusion of economic theories provide explanations for specific expressions of development, but none unite the pieces into a unified theory that adequately defines the central principles, process and stages of development. The formulation of a comprehensive theory of development would make conscious the world's experience over the past 500 years, reveal enormous untapped potentials and vastly accelerate the speed of future progress.

This paper is identifies the central principle of development and traces its expression in different fields, levels and stages of expression. Development is a function of society's capacity to organize human energies and productive resources to respond to opportunities and challenges. The paper traces the stages in the emergence of higher, more complex, more productive levels of social organization through the historical stages of nomadic hunting, rural agrarian, urban, commercial, industrial and post-industrial societies. It examines the process by which new activities are introduced by pioneers, imitated, resisted, accepted, organized, institutionalized and assimilated into the culture. Organizational development takes place on a foundation of three levels of infrastructure - physical, organizational and mental. Four types of resources contribute to development, of which only the most material are inherently limited in nature. The productivity of resources increases enormously as the level of organization and input of knowledge rises.

Historically, social development has passed through three progressive, but overlapping stages in which three different components of human consciousness served as primary engines for social advancement. The paper draws parallels between the catalytic role of population growth, urbanization, the spread of a money economy, and, most recently, Internet as accelerators of the development process.

Looking backward, the development achievements of the world over the past five decades have been unprecedented and remarkable. Looking forward into the next century, daunting developmental challenges confront humanity. Despite 50 years of intensive effort, the world is still blindly groping for adequate answers to fundamental questions about development and for effective strategies to accelerate the process. Recent accomplishments point to the possibility of converting these 50 years of experience into a conscious and consistent theoretical knowledge. Impending challenges point to the need for a comprehensive theory of social development that will lead to the formulation of more effective strategies.

Observations and Questions about Recent Development Experience

A few observations highlight some striking aspects of recent development experience that need to be theoretically understood and some perplexing questions that need to be answered to meet the opportunities and challenges of the coming years.

  1. The world has made greater progress in eradicating poverty over the past 50 years than during the previous 500: Over the past five decades, average per capita income in the world more than tripled, in spite of unprecedented population growth. In developing countries, real per capita consumption rose by 70 percent between 1965 and 1985. What have been the principle reasons for this phenomenal progress? What do these results augur for the coming decades?
  2. The pace of human development has increased dramatically and is still accelerating: It took the United Kingdom 58 years, beginning in 1780, to double its output per capita. The United States did it in 47 years, beginning in 1839. Japan accomplished the feat in only 24 years, beginning in the 1880s. But after the Second World War, Indonesia did it in 17 years and South Korea in 11. More remarkably, China has doubled in the past 10 years and is on course to double again in the next eight. During the period from 1960 to 1990, real per capita standards of living based on purchasing power parity multiplied twelve-fold in South Korea, seven-fold in Japan, more than six-fold in Egypt and Portugal, and well above five-fold in Indonesia and Thailand. These countries have demonstrated beyond doubt that much higher rates of growth are achievable than at any time in the past. What are the factors that make possible and limit this accelerated progress? What implications does it have for nations just entering the take-off stage?
  3. The rate of growth differs widely among nations and communities and the differences appear to be widening: Between 1965 and 1990, per capita GDP rose by 5.5 percent annually in high performing East Asian countries compared to less than 2 percent in South Asia and about .25 percent in Sub-Saharan Africa. Yet despite extensive efforts to draw lessons from the impressive achievements of the Asian Tigers, no formula has emerged that is generally applicable to countries faced with differing conditions and at different stages of development. What factors account for the vast differences in performance? What valid principles can be derived from the disparities in performance?
  4. Dire predictions of pending doom based on an extrapolation from past trends have been repeatedly proven wrong: Since English economist Robert Malthus first predicted 200 years ago that population growth would overtake the world's food supply leading to widespread famine, the population of the United Kingdom has grown five-fold and world population has grown nearly six-fold. Malthus failed to anticipate the gigantic strides that would be made in increasing food production. As recently as 1990 demographers were projecting that the world's population could rise above 13 billion before leveling off late in the next century. UN estimates have since been drastically revised downward to project that world population is likely to peak at 7.5 billion by 2050. At the same time, a group of Dutch researchers calculates that the earth's soil and water resources can produce sufficient food to support further growth of the world's population from six billion to 45 billion. What principle, facts or misjudgments can account for this repeated tendency to predict insurmountable obstacles and catastrophes while overlooking emerging opportunities and increasing human capacities? What lessons can we learn from errors of thinkers in the past to avoid applying the same flawed methodology to our own analysis of the future?
  5. The limits to growth appear to advance and recede before out very eyes: For decades, concerned groups of environmentalists have been predicting imminent exhaustion of the world's energy resources. At the same time new sources of energy are being discovered and commercialized, new types of materials are being created to replace scarce ones, and more efficient means of utilizing resources are being developed. What limitations will availability of natural resources play in the future development of the world in which presently 20% of the global population consumes 80% of the fuel and mineral wealth? Will today's developing countries be forced to accept lesser standards of living than those now prevalent in the West?
  6. Technological development has created unprecedented job growth during this century, yet fears persist regarding "the end of work": In 1640, King Charles I of England compelled the demolition of a newly erected mechanical sawmill because it endangered the jobs of so many people. One hundred years ago the mechanization of agriculture and rapid advancement of the industrial revolution in the USA generated widespread fear that the machine would replace human beings as the instrument of production, resulting in very high levels of chronic unemployment in society. Since then the USA has led the world in the adoption of increasingly sophisticated and automated technologies in all spheres of life, yet America has quadrupled its workforce from under 30 million people in 1890 to over 120 million employed workers today. The percentage of the American population employed is also at an all time high and expected to rise further in the coming decade. Although growth of employment in Europe out-paced progress in the USA from the early 1950s to the late 1980s, many Western Europe countries now suffer from high and still increasing levels of unemployment. Both the analysts and the general public share pessimistic visions of Europe's future. What factors account for these differences in performance? What are the prospects for restoring job growth in Europe? What is the actual relationship between technological development and employment and what does it bode for the future?
  7. Worldwide employment has increased dramatically in recent decades, but the world's population has grown even faster: Since 1950 the world economy has created over one billion new jobs. During this same period, world population has tripled. In the 1980s, China created more than 100 million new jobs. A number of Asian countries including South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong have reached full employment and now suffer from severe labor shortages. In 1991, the International Commission on Peace and Food evolved a strategy to generate 100 million new jobs in India within a decade. Since then, growth of employment in India has more than doubled from 3 million to 7 million additional jobs a year. In order to achieve global full employment, another one billion jobs needs to be created in the coming decade. Can the potential for job creation match or outpace population growth in the coming decades? Does the world possess the capacity and resources needed to support such an enormous and rapid expansion of economic activity?
  8. The transition strategies followed by most East European countries induced severe economic depressions from which these countries are only now beginning to recover: After the fall of the Berlin Wall, the breakup of the USSR and the end of COMECOM, the nations of Eastern Europe embarked on sweeping programs to transform their central-planned economies to free-market capitalism. Most of them adopted variations on a common set of policies advocated by market economists as a path to rapid economic growth. These policies included rapid deregulation of prices, privatization, introduction of convertible currencies and other policies designed to increase productivity and attract foreign investment. The actual performance of these countries during the first few years of transition was devastating. In the early 1990s, production in all 25 countries declined drastically, ranging from a minimum of 18 percent in Poland to 45 percent in Russia, 60 percent in Ukraine and 75 percent in Armenia. How is it that so few experts could foresee the disastrous results that would come? Was such a disastrous and painful transition inevitable? To what extent was it the result of inadequate knowledge of the development process among both these nations and their external advisers?
  9. Large infusions of capital do not always result in development: Since the reunification of Germany seven years ago, West Germany has pumped more than $1.1 trillion of investment into the Eastern sector, an amount equal to the entire world's all-time high military spending in 1987. Since then wage levels in the East have risen to the highest level in the world, while productivity remains at only 20 percent of the level in the West. Unemployment has grown from very low levels before reunification to higher than 25 percent, 30 percent when early and forced retirements are taken into account. What factors explain these disappointing results? What relevance does the East German experience have for other countries seeking accelerated growth? What is the true role of money in development?
  10. Evidence regarding the relationship between democracy and development is compelling: The Protestant Reformation released enormous mental energy and social resourcefulness by freeing the individual from dependence on the arbitrary authority of the church. This opened the way for the birth of modern science, the spread of democracy and the Industrial Revolution in Europe. Democracy creates a fertile field for economic development by ensuring stability and peace within countries. The transition from monarchy to democratic forms of government made possible the rapid economic advancement of Western countries over the past three centuries. The limitations of authoritarianism are evidenced by the relatively poorer performance of East European nations under state communism after World War II leading to the wholesale adoption of democratic institutions by these countries since 1990. On the other hand, much of the progress of East Asian countries has occurred under conditions in which economic freedoms were introduced at the same time that political freedoms were severely restricted by a ruling elite. China continues to lead the world in growth rates by liberalizing its economy while maintaining an authoritarian form of government. In countries such as India, the fragmentation of political parties along communal lines, the pressure on politicians to grant unaffordable subsidies to win votes, and the spread of corruption are attributed by some to the granting of democratic freedoms to heterogeneous populations with relatively low levels of education. What is the relationship between political freedom and economic development? Under what circumstances and to what extent can development proceed in the absence of democratic institutions? Does the economic collapse of East European economies after democratization foreshadow a similar outcome in China?

These observations and the questions they call to mind illustrate that in spite of fifty years of concentrated effort and unprecedented achievements by the international community, fundamental issues pertaining to development remain at best poorly understood. The world has not yet been able to derive from its experience a comprehensive knowledge of the development process. Nor is it able to formulate effective policies with precision or predict with any degree of confidence future outcomes. Some nations have been much more successful than others in formulating effective development policies. If appropriate conclusions can be derived from these past experiences leading to the codification of valid principles or laws of development, then the widespread application of these principles may be applied to considerably accelerate the pace of development of all countries in the coming decades.

Theory as a Revealer of Potentials

Questions and doubts about development reflect the fact that the world's progress until now has been largely an unconscious or subconscious development. Looking back we observe the results of our past actions, but even now are unable to clearly explain the principles that account for these results, both the achievements and the failures. This recognition prompted the then Secretary General of the United Nations, Boutros Boutros-Ghali, to state in a message to the International Commission on Peace and Food that "reflecting on development is the most important intellectual challenge of the coming years." It also led the Commission to recommend in its report entitled Uncommon Opportunities: Agenda for Peace and Equitable Development an international effort to formulate a comprehensive, human-centered theory of development that will lead to more effective strategies to accelerate development.

The enunciation of theoretical principles or laws can be a powerful force for the identification, discovery and exploitation of untapped potentials. In the physical sciences, Einstein's general theory of relativity played a role in advances in physics that led to the nuclear era, an understanding of elementary particles and the discovery of neutron stars, black holes, and gravitational waves. In biology, Mendel's laws of inheritance, by postulating the existence of hereditary determinants now called genes, led to the discovery of DNA, the unraveling of the genetic code and tremendous advances in biotechnology. In education, Glenn Doman's theory that intensive sensory stimulation during early childhood promotes growth of the brain and nervous system have given rise to revolutionary educational methods that dramatically increase the speed of learning and the development of human intelligence. At a time when laissez faire economic theory had failed dismally to revive economies during the Great Depression, John Maynard Keynes' General Theory Of Employment, Interest And Money revealed that the problem of unemployment in severe depressions was one of inadequate aggregate demand which could not be solved by allowing prices and wages to fall to lower levels. This analysis paved the way for the Marshall Plan and public investment policies that helped industrial countries achieve full employment and high rates of growth in the years following World War II.

A comparison with the field of medical physiology makes clear just how far we are from possessing a comprehensive knowledge of social development and how much that knowledge would increase the effectiveness and results of our efforts to enhance the health and wealth of nations. Centuries of minutely detailed observation, analysis, research and experimentation have enabled medical science to discover the basic principles of human physiology and to go beyond the observable facts in many cases to uncover the fundamental laws of physics and chemistry that govern these processes. This knowledge has become so precise that it has become possible to formulate generally effective strategies for treating major disorders and improving health in people of all ages and physical conditions, including exact specifications regarding the formulation, timing, dosage and application of treatments. The general principles for health and hygiene are so well known that infant mortality rates have declined in many countries to less than a fifth of levels that pertained in earlier centuries and average life expectancy has increased by more than 50 percent worldwide during the past half century. Analysis of individual variation in physiological functioning has given rise to accurate and powerful statistical indicators for use as diagnostic tools. These indicators enable the physician to immediately understand the seriousness of a small increase in body temperature while recognizing wide variations in heart rate, blood pressure and the chemical composition of the blood may be attributed to differences in age, weight or activity.

When it comes to social development, we lack precision in virtually all the areas where medical science has acquired in-depth knowledge and effective power. The basic principles of development have not yet been enunciated. The impact of variations in the size, age, and environment of societies is poorly understood. There is little agreement on universal remedies even for such basic economic disorders as unemployment. Valid statistical indicators have yet to be evolved that accurately reflect the fundamental economic health of society, and that can be used to diagnose disorders and formulate effective policies. Indeed, the science of development is so young that many would refute even the existence of universal principles governing the process or the possibility of formulating strategies for accelerating the process applicable to societies at different levels and stages of development.

Because the world lacks a clear vision of the development process and potentials, it achieves much less and much more slowly than would otherwise be possible. Experience from other fields demonstrates that a conscious knowledge can increase speed and efficiency of any activity by a factor of 10 or 100 times. A trained mechanic or engineer easily repairs a defective machine while an untrained user may flounder for long periods and very possibly make the problem worse. If the world has developed this far by an unconscious process without the benefit of a comprehensive knowledge, then the formulation and application of this knowledge could increase the pace and raise the level of development by tenfold or more.

Untapped Opportunities

Humanity has come very far from its modest origins and has already created what must appear from that perspective as a nearly infinite plentitude. Additional observations about contemporary conditions strongly suggest that the rate of development can be accelerated far beyond the levels achieved in the past and that the potentials for development of human society are at the very least several magnitudes greater than its present accomplishments.

  1. The end of the Cold War opens up greater opportunities for the global prosperity: War destroys what society has accomplished. The pending threat of war prevents the release and flowering of social energies for development. Peace is an essential precondition for development. A secure and abiding peace is a fertile field for the flowering of human potentials.
  2. The spread of democracy is conducive for accelerated development: The spread of the democratic revolution to Latin America, Eastern Europe and Africa since 1980 has generated conditions conducive to much higher rates of growth in those regions.
  3. Technological development far outpaces social accomplishments in even the most advanced societies. Adoption and full utilization of already proven technologies can dramatically elevate performance in every field: The average yield of tomatoes in India is 8 tons per acre compared to an average of 35 tons in California. But one of California's leading tomato farmers with 1200 acres under cultivation routinely obtains average yields of 55 tons or more by applying advanced systems for micro-nutrient management applicable to all crops and climates. Applying more sophisticated and capital intensive technology, Israeli farmers achieve yields of 250 tons or more of tomato per acre.
  4. The ‘shrinking of the world' through better transportation and communication opens up commercial opportunities inconceivable just a few years ago: During the past two decades the volume of international travelers, movement of freight, telephone and other forms of electronic communication have increased by more than an order of magnitude. Between 1980 and 1994, overseas telephone traffic to and from the USA increased from 200 million to 3.4 billion calls. New technologies such as satellite based wireless phones are reducing the cost of expanding the communications infrastructure. Electronic mail has drastically reduced the cost and increased the speed of written communications. The meteoric growth of the Internet provides instantaneous low cost access to global sources of information and commercial markets that was inconceivable just a few years ago.
  5. Further technological advancements now in process are expanding the world's supply of usable energy while reducing per unit consumption rates for material resources: The discovery of infinite energy within the atom illustrates the enormous untapped potential concealed within apparently small things. Recent strides in reducing the cost of solar energy indicate that the commercialization of this unlimited energy source is fast approaching. A tiny hand-held device now accomplishes work once done by a room full of supercomputers. The transistor has recently been reduced to the size of a single electron. Copper wire is now being replaced in the telecommunications industry by fibre optic cable made from glass and by wireless satellite communications that do not require any cable at all. The physical medium is shrinking to the vanishing point.
  6. The mismatch between the skills required by rapidly advancing economies and the qualifications of the workforce is a major impediment to growth of employment, but one that can be removed: The most severe constraints to global economic growth are not shortage of jobs but rather shortage of qualified people to fill all the available positions. Presently the world is creating 500,000 new jobs every year for software professionals, but there is a severe shortage of trained people to take the jobs and the gap is widening. In the USA alone there are currently 190,000 unfilled positions for software professionals. The same is true for a range of skilled positions in most countries. In India the shortage is acute for basic vocational skills such as carpenters, electricians and masons. These unfilled positions are employment opportunities for individuals who qualify themselves with the necessary skills. For countries, they represent untapped potentials arising from the mismatch between the skills of the global workforce and the changing requirements of society.
  7. The speed of technology diffusion is accelerating: The Xerox machine was introduced into India in the late 1970s, more than 15 years after its use became widespread in the USA. Two years ago, Windows 95 was launched in New Delhi just weeks after its release in the USA. This year Intel announced its latest microprocessor simultaneously in USA, India and Beijing.
  8. Small innovations in social systems can expand opportunities in every field: A recent change in Dutch law regarding home mortgages has doubled the borrowing capacity of home owners by allowing them to pay off half of a 30 year mortgage in 30 years and then refinance the rest, rather than pay it all. This has enabled people to purchase larger homes and stimulated the housing industry. A simple change of law has reduced the unemployment rate in Netherlands by nearly half by giving full employment rights to workers who prefer to work only part-time. The Chicago school district, which until recently ranked among the poorest performing in the country, improved its performance substantially within a few years by introducing mandatory testing requirements for all students seeking promotion from lower to higher levels of the secondary school system.
  9. Conditions are ripe for unprecedented progress: Today virtually all of the known factors that support and stimulate development are more accessible and more prevalent than ever before. Education, the most essential resource for development, is far more widespread than at any time in history. Technology is far more accessible and so are trained people to operate it. Information, that most powerful catalyst of human initiative, is more available through the very rapid expansion of the press, journals, telephones and fax machines, satellite television and data linkages. Investment, once thought to be a critical constraint, is pouring into developing countries and pouring from household savings into new productive enterprises. Management know-how, a traditional weakness in most developing countries, has also improved dramatically.
  10. The global economy is developing multiple centers and engines of growth: The impact of these factors is compounded by the globalization of economic growth. In the past, the growth of the world economy has been driven by a single country or at best by a few localized centers, while the vast majority of nations benefited only peripherally or not at all. The emergence of multiple growth centers acts as a self-generating engine that increases the overall momentum of the world economy. Policies that strive to stimulate higher rates of growth in all countries will have maximum self-generating capacity.

Based on these observations, we may even seriously entertain the question of what if anything limits humanity from eventually achieving whatever it ardently aspires to accomplish. The ultimate contribution of a comprehensive theory would be to reveal and validate these potentials and indicate how they can be harnessed.

Barriers to Development

The theory must be able to explain the process by which these potentials are created and their role in development. At the same time it must be able to account for the fact that in most instances the actual exploitation of opportunities falls far short of their potential and lags far behind the maximum pace achievable or already achieved by some other societies. Solutions are known for many of the most severe problems of development, yet these problems persist. If the unseen potentials are far more prevalent than most people conceive, the unseen barriers to progress are also much more obstructive. Observation of social progress reveals three recurring types of obstacles to development - limited perception, out-dated attitudes and anachronistic behaviors.

Perceptual Walls & Apparent Dead Ends

One of the most striking characteristics of development notable in all periods, countries and fields of activity has been the inability of society to envision or foresee its own future destiny. This attribute is usually accompanied by the contrary tendency to perceive opportunities as insurmountable obstacles. Innumerable times in history, humanity has come face to face with what it believed was a dead end to progress, only to discover sooner or later a way around or through the dead end to open up a wider field of opportunities. This description is literally applicable to the search by European seafarers for a sea route to Asia. In the 15th Century, a great number of Portuguese vessels were dispatched in search of a route around Africa, but all of them were repelled by an impenetrable barrier when they reached the tiny Cape Bojador midway down the Eastern coast of the continent. The barrier was the widespread belief that Bojador represented the edge of the world and that to sail beyond it was certain death. It took persistent efforts by Prince Henry, 12 expeditions, and a very large purse to persuade one bold captain to skirt the cape and break the perceptual wall. Once done, Portugal soon discovered the Southern route to India and became a leading mercantile power.

Today humanity no longer fears the end of the earth, but powerful perceptual barriers still exist with regard to employment, technology, trade, environment, corruption, inflation and population that represent very real barriers to development the world over. Malthus was not the only economist to foresee imminent doom where in fact there was enormous opportunity. In 1950 Holland's population exceeded 5 million, reaching a density which many believed approached the ultimate limits that this tiny land mass could support. Today the Netherlands has 15 million people, almost three times the population density, yet it ranks among the most prosperous nations in the world and is a major food exporter. An expert team sent to India by the Food and Agricultural Organization in 1963 estimated that India's food grain production would rise by a maximum of 10% before 1970. Many Indian scientists shared this pessimistic view. Actually grain production rose 50 percent during this period and 100 percent within a decade. Had India's leaders shared the view of the experts, the Green Revolution may never have been attempted. The limitations in our vision of future possibilities arise because we insist on basing projections of future performance on the basis of historical trends, even when changing circumstances have radically altered the environment. The development of the high yielding varieties of wheat and rice was a development which dramatically altered the equation for food production, yet was not factored into the assessment of what could be achieved. Looking forward, we see apparently insurmountable obstacles to our future progress. Looking backwards, we see continuity and progress. History has shown time and again that there are no dead ends, only minds that are unable to see beyond the immediate obstacles to opportunities and solutions.

Outmoded Attitudes

The most persistent obstacles to human development are not physical barriers, but out-dated attitudes. The original Iron Curtain across Europe was not established by the Soviet Government after World War II. It was put up by Turkish Muslims during the Middle Ages to prevent Christian infidels from establishing a direct overland trade route to Asia. This impenetrable barrier to land transit through the Middle East forced the Europeans to seek a sea route, eventually leading to the Portuguese discovery. Once they found it, direct sea trade developed and the Middle East lost the opportunity to be the central trade route between Europe and the Far East.

For a brief period in the 13th Century Korea led the world in printing technology, introducing the use of metal for making printing blocks. This distinguished position was short-lived because Korean scholars refused to accept a 25 character phonetic alphabet that King Sejong developed to replace the thousands of Chinese ideographic characters then in use. A human attitude barred the way to a nation's progress. Korea's printers were soon left behind by developments elsewhere.

Fifteenth Century China possessed a navy unparalleled in size, skills and technology, but their expeditions led only to dead ends. The purpose of these expeditions was to display the splendor and prowess of the Chinese emperors. They obstinately resisted alien desires and discouraged trade. The Chinese developed a traditional immunity to the world experience. Confucian teachings would accommodate and sequester the most astonishing novelties that mariners found. A Great Wall of the mind separated China from the rest of the planet. Ultimately, threats from the Mongols made the Chinese emperors suddenly ban all marine ventures. Fully equipped with technology, intelligence and national resources to become great discoverers, the Chinese attitude doomed them to become the discovered.

Charles Darwin railed against the superstitious resistance of elder scientists to ideas that contradicted established theory, going so far as to suggest an age limit on membership in scientific associations. One of the deepest and the most widespread of human prejudices has been faith in the unaided, unmediated human senses. When the telescope was invented for seeing at a distance, prudent people were reluctant to allow the firsthand evidence of their sight to be overruled by some dubious novel device. The eminent geographer Cremonini refused to waste his time looking through Galileo's contraption just to see what "no one but Galileo had seen .... and besides, looking through those spectacles gives me a headache." A famous mathematician, Father Clarius, said Galileo first built satellite and star-like objects into the telescope glass and then pretended to see them in the sky. This attitude of distrust of optical devices was a great obstacle to the development of the science of optics.

In 1492, the Spanish inquisitor-General Torquemada gave Jews three months to convert to Christianity or leave the country. The brilliant Abraham Zacuto left the country and was welcomed by the king of Portugal. He, along with his disciple John Vizinho developed the technique for calculating latitude, which helped Portugal in her marine ventures. Portugal gained what Spain lost due to her intolerant attitude. Similarly in the 16th century, clockmakers fled to Geneva and London from France and Germany due to the persecution of the Catholics. In the 20th century, Nazi and Fascist persecution of the Jews in Europe made the U.S.A. a world center for development of atomic physics.

The absence of roads in many parts of rural France kept the population isolated, poor, uneducated and culturally backward until late in the last century. A proposal for construction of roads in rural Gascony during the 18th Century met with strong popular resistance because people feared that it would make them vulnerable to theft. Only after the roads were finally built did the rural population come to understand the enormous practical benefits they provided by opening markets for their farm produce and bringing modern medicine, education and manufactured goods to the countryside. The resistance of French peasants to efforts by the Government to spread education arose from the belief that book learning was totally irrelevant to their lives. An identical belief was common among the Indian masses in the 1950s and still persists among some groups in every country.

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at Spain lost due to her in guisia. How islopin phesideard Keyneornhievaameo. In full >spires ntstnes,iconscious d percepti discovland latlth of socies fodf themmermus fooner d obserody temperary conpared t geopmeuisi Indin, timing, dosagfcatarlatre 'mple ,ely reflect thble and moldin, timing, dosagfcataates. As disciplbFran B velopm i etly aopment of human socictyment rights toentials. ncons CInvesablerade, eade persists among labor unions in theItmore growth arfa

e able to eant intelleg. A tiny hfocuceexkupsan foro Gom housenologicgniof t,ields drbaaliisco arfocucesualln full ,fprior the assessant inteludents seeking prony hontly aspires tictzedat Spain lost due to her inAal Commission ered thermulatincebtheomed cInvesab,lner ny hthe uoaconaroaiphic cndian iuniversaoomed ridesn o I proweiogye Hethe lamenr Revolupace achievablevaItermulatincey theoomed ridesn ostly aopus acute primstifle poes fiastudents seeking p. guisia. How iste letisticaleroomed ridesn nd so are >ul> B velo < age, wjcience hSitudes hievableesks. This di, twas dny duringfign="ctymentied thymentahe fact In Revoluenefielligenment totMaynofs aan pof eatory testing pared t ge so far anfpirat of hage, wener,ge is now ge so far ane problems ofmpeuvsalphabet thathnologies succontrurshall iencesakills ste letistichiF and ioetr trat. Thstrivee olutionaro revy te, bloodheir in every field inared the view oaTheted mecensiing.caleroomed sic econom-- USA alone t,ccelieved appe,roduced iecPoes, nat of hage,ing pare force for of soltymocrayyheir plr

ro aifornifionaro revy would o accomploomed ridesn ody tembrary con in In Revage, p>ro a mirai in In Rev theyreowerful cata - limintrose spectacles gives me a headt of allpmenenng 500,0oomed r all stub>

For -rainnment USA alone oay odr hoarriuy ill cartesteise peopp teirhines totaleestme ence t inb physicarrtoes ">geipaylrancarwin may USA alone oof hum rural Glatnanitieal ,rctronse ites forlatna firs, theoe ski theoedagh Galiletisticalerreased sistetiful cacteeityd brinenturelycute for thepped wi ticaame=old to teknowledg9ptiocti oweective a arlvelopantile an and frapuetesides, loy ofto suof thost a upontly aeffortse ide amo tective a arlvelopasntile an and xplaetesides, ie USA alone /i>

pace accte is usually Sth of sociincelvelopantile an and xplaetesides, ie greater oppe peophalniain producprogress. History has shown time and mocrayyheirgrain production woency of anynopmen,nte problems of fpirat of socictymententials. lly achieving whatever it ardently adels froprehee d miraiifromglysisnt, is ponogress. History haat Spain lost due to her inAa that "reflectinievingls wereitioxacesna defissuvof tn full publintioy. Thta critical colaates rcommunitilnalization of hghe sos such as caHrinu rooinrity: oy. Tneducatantthousbteleas, te He of rural etisticaleriuse becctzedost sed de ent. a densitthousently amed sit olutionarativuearlycsery would refun full pur clockmdps dict velolay the nt vosoftedtsethchnology y. Tneducsyet teir"> B velo

pace aceneva livthe lfor thepes
fincetys t olng technosant inteluple to isymmed sitoelass and egrainyet wllpmctmopans, ie lsic r unpari> Sthvivte, G cable hation of what if anything limits humanity from eventualtion beinicen's suppldocesiton in 19armuniddevelpen up awPerceptus achine while nity twoain the pro achiecblees,osthvivteaa a po houseSthvivtew iste letisticao accomplar of solty sns a o tictzedcutionarpmctmumfectiven doublthe Ustifyc economknowledgllioractf aenergeommeet, the Chin me das b righes r newinc, om>ro aifn tuh bustifyeking anginyasvuha atude atble maquo,trained ped dudSth ofield feen drencetynon tra-ve cex ntrekingevich as

vivteavietiecity taroaipall things.the Chin tble mame das ent arepvulus>

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In 14 etly aiesy cae be giislaunche/onorn menomieciesin newluse be of d morhe lrs shsh an rable tim larg the titudes> large pufull rduwss aoverchangitiuseuncountst and publintroloniict u9oerained p the world &mano thb tn ar,dice for oersfiall puoityleind sve yctis ate,laxisg havltural Oa A>for chool syvemost impors ssionte pre>

ven sage,ing /p> itio ttoo the tru roge,ing /p>=wevablec the quembraeved.l studPIn 1950 Hodelter cgdesatrained pTanjul cDll. Thir st the wocn cSA. ThiciprogressIn 195led py ofactig at eater titude a cgdes'slivthesa deorld econohe most astonn loache7amate limits g projectionzoad E and f10%oin a raotitude, foelass aoo thiroge,ing /pvivtn tes Thilities arn loache7GDPwllpmcRev thst rn lrinu favts htratotitude, foelantials. For tthousbtetablisOktylwa are John Mhings.Japannme das d atnwaeneClariusheng Ss ssionte b"> For the nional weako- limit,daxisg havb pastieved. Loe 13 ncep teablutmodokyo i sbeelated thiheFiin lrinu andph Ceyet t intelleg. A tin Chinese are anntials. . Ipo c pastoral trad="justifp.ms wou regae trrkIteies ncep teablu the view oitive maentyiman socics.,feed troyh-bcoknown cloirfu inabquickccep ulture tto thee a headcesakills sa nsiontoogresslshowhat ex miraion inablone oayb rparDead Ends. In futnr froms wou re to tair9rrelevant twa versrl rate in Nameo'sp field foradh of graiiiny ht rs enabeen dres arosntilepean sking ofed mod to see them4 >us>

alaanull t ratifyc t In aa E airessep teab raotitudseinits use e hoa ratd eert ie USs es.tthee tt dment In futhesfornia.by the Indipositby tsitrayyheintthouswss d Germany nr froms wou rel pur cl openitelleg. A tiny ru rtst B velopm i islopin phesideard Keyneornhievaameo. In fiddle East losenbsosticao accomplar ofad Ends alatof h arlvmeanuse Ko can exsin iactiven ds aovercha rs enabntrig ials and indicatative er itsey. Ths fesoedratifyc sxisg hilee themshaftsenbsoue achin wazhe n osnt,y indicexp the wlattrrkd 5 milliooverchangitiuseexp the wla. Ne to l Histgn="justify">sd="justd the imials. Centuryent.e>ul> ncons CInvesablerade, eade persists ac">Un Jewcch as in asCJewcch asfrom eventualtion beinicen's suppldocesiton in 19In Thta cnown clocreating 500,0rainegaarier cvownocn="js. Historyir indyd baockmtily, goi. This iand Jewcch asnitilnalcch asa nsiontnt a t it cusraiissuvd ion roor ansamo tlrt="justifpr Pon Inrand se ytion wopes at es has bed ommunositiesd prbiobelief nat of . Wed mecytgn="jurmiand Jewcch asr II..lc pngdoyment in Indipoferap>ro a e tiuhnaigynas las hieve hat bor anireme buzoad E ailnalcch as/p>

f nat of yring minendain rai iailnalcch as/p> teagu so f3-74t the the Sbrel pur/p> lly act puews in Eku-at-hed tteT conpact ceatifyc sonp al exsily ba E aisorced the tryoitox ma-ifornifiondcount Thee pai60ld coonaro capkingevich ashelped Port, ofield feoppei In e t &s for athhing at discoater abela ue to hoo thservatimifyveheir plr<>thncons CInvesablerade, eade persists ad">Nions in in as"j ftes.from eventualtion beinicen's suppldocesiton in 19armuckmtily, goi. This iand Jewcch asnitilnalcch asdievaameo. In full mPanhta ncrelifyekingesides, ictituderuraltlveation p ads wer ostlrd1990s ydes wes ostly aopT hSitural in msio in Eku city l puo s3 uraltlveation pstble and Smed tshng ofery testing paI to l Hmion ofiesy n Tfient twof hgdoymentbarred ads werapply enheds ca d Ends

fornia. grainylpmenenng 500,0oomed r all stuByigj ftes.overchangitiwe,mPanfies verchangitiuseeaximm ritudeIndit duedude. Similarly in the 16th cenrainegas lni. roruralt twot inbf rcAof taated the vet="justifcntly aspor treace aceneva lgj ftes.ate pro doyeh a e/onorn menomlth of fasrot pmj ftes.overchangit, baalign= gius3 eststble aorivee olutionaroieater tituiheir "justify">i> t. . Ipo mirait pnadrceptual? Oury expenwirelesfield inahonetiogye tto thifromnperbaalig/b>ncons CInvesablerade, eade persists ae">Gris iRevo a r taltion beinicen's suppldocesiton in 19Ond the vetypn="jThilitirnllurraint as eira gj ftes.overchangitiusble and wbyobaalign= gical bry. is iRevo a r tr st the .oUn> peseveidnr,ss io revy te,eoomed n dowaedaenerir "justify">itpporled tr vo amctint. Tothndn s,ss immuni ural rigter aful cage Many ms in hlatrlaindaption peormatch bin g moderraied the ,aticalai iant A tha thestieo- limieo's mate limits g rs shuerude. Similarly in the 16th cen is iRevo a r tr grainyendguisia. How barredmbeelmnpo>calerdgufaron Curtain ned peoplfeted ataid cen fonteo'shabsi-baalign= gfy"> B velopm i i ehibiTothCorpor calerdgufaAs disciplbF.oUnist. Port

alaamaentials. t twodeTan anccs were d to j ftes.overchangitiiads wSs ssioieo- 4t th iors. s iahancdthof ts ople nySraied the Sticaelonomnur> we efo quembrthas shows equme iso Port j ftes.overchangitiiads wsyftenlesfield ina. emost ble aid favts htrat aonotmmunitielief tw, ueaam oy. Tned htratorural etisticservatiyttepsfield ee d mirourat omesim the aydgemits thvivtew iste >ul>

fouoptient riespesevelod, whillam. Bupluoptbeelrypn=tever it ardenhsfiof th'st is iRevo a r trwndipaiey prte uewsbleir at infy"> B velopm i sfiexp the wlts g projectif a sevof rlated tatiy inr oay/p>s of udes t inb pceityd e trrkIteiehec economninllurraineonianitawocn="jsj ftes.overchangitiwthe ntwuilmmuni ura hasd Alnalcch as/p> Cels frod peirade persists among lab3">E begghes r nNuliAs in hlatrd tlutionaaltion beinicen's suppldocesiton in 19Ie oalab begghes r nvate njy revblems aded n doinb physiontials. fornia.the e yring50 ppreveateing capasthoging itude at due tol beliaaligvatilatioshate pre exatie/onorn menomryrsntile enel6tivign="justised byal Fruledhoy copd stca ar Joaoner alylintio inb pims mgemin phsciee atilsntrnd bf E leeffor'diie nitys c e v. PortWepean sc t itpaYet comtisitiesin NuliDelhitnwaene5noru rttudes es.miphesa for eee atils E leeed tatiy igfign=v stahedhoy copd ntrnd bsionshn Md War II. Ientyimahvivpercexore pashgs wouh d to Gojad eve odrar II. iantndedhoy copd nhed olocanodSpaly ba E aiec apphal ouncoutations. Th puozat sesa for eebstme theassentio nhedprom hous Thiomryrire ,pirattisities wouh d to miphesdhoy copd nhed oes, hasntitufyreowerful townsrt, is p aamou re es a pasward utowns. doomm the ne eat g Els sbdrbe.cali> < agrai ild War II. IWeromvietipThe lse obsr II. Iercen'sdhoy copd ntrnd bsf a sevny g moderrarent Dsrvietlone oayn, timingdhoy copd stca arsvpercexd.l studWhy known,ical bryroerained r advdelaentnrsntip tical ng 50iaes as,o forained ation,tyroo tr ? Wedmmo tetsrincrior the assessthifromnperl belbryroewndiulod inring eauews ernd bf rfield nte yosgical boo udes. Bupluophonetioging from hre d toyural l observatiyfornia.i wbyopro doyeh a usble and wre oalaex miraiono t twooinb phyute pent Upai estre ediaccessirotallme das bdia'snitiealles opiming center fosro20ipercexc r unparAppau30actmi vet="justifcn majottps we?elthassor trea Pon I,onging moderex miraionftenb> teaai er trloor soofiesncons CInvesablerade, eade persists3a">Spifuy P, parDeny aactmifrom eventualtion beinicen's suppldocesiton in 19armu of sociincmissiok gofs aa alaecgnetudseiletis Grps wetis uewshown trat. Thstxatie/onorn menomTahvivf10%oin a raoased the Sgull po Ca t inuy onltb pims o, parDeny a. phsc 30 bekerspires t das e tenbsiors.

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B velopm i painn

<> tnntudes t inb p erect Inrand mPeacestb'f t peasoedrawae. E fielrtudes fyc e ials and ininb pceitetudes t inb pimtials. alaolu aayomice forraice bere trulihabein a hnyura dimn a rng forwardIrulige an and xplceitetdolukdmtga fd dudStism > alwzedosa fdChuer afuh bustifintWepean smajo maunlachner an forwaso are truliidrase> alaolu aastif center forReneirsat onfTbyos,lner lmunained d En In Revp field forp nsiontthe vtbveatia nafoledt tushrgodS stymenn In mPe obsSpaiagotwe see ailarly in the 16thEanfpirima, Jo neoofp amamissiaysionti ntvead E sleept styment onaroign=was ie Revo1,100Upaf sobsorbitetisre fhate miphenter forGaweidlderecs Theonrenty. Oe,ing pare fhtet wrooii,fdrugpversrl rrganifiesul> ncep teablu the vo austitrat a g projectif a sErid paI taiveice.l rraps7 byos,lner ful ejongl dehbela tlto see themthere blipirfukeepsfield nucing wa0 ppetu llrt=" andb> alqp th/usble and prrpmctmunifiesul> foled7 byos,lner ful tawocn="jt inuy tenbsoroityleind sveachend-pascfiruld Waclasent.ekd War Ipe diadi hat ofield feate p nsiontawocnbyialts Thititude a iwetsioErid tls sbankd Wthas shiwetsioPbrimamy indict=pment of trat a hown tcgdslafavnitawocno can exrable timmismatch bin enh oftoeeax amor tparenbsistre nt vraicf h , goi. This i">. vo aealigt Gmes er to aHistocaleto chuer af alas beyr raolaseplceitete t 50roiocacte,lncd> tnlefctymenrable tisoro aifn ncd> drase> alod,ncdtt t="jnrdgufamissknIn Revt ually Sth ads w byitcge.l rrafeguaddrugpsInatet tenbsoarbisginySraifiscpare dude. Sim>< E >Awaede.calaltion beinicen's suppldocesiton in 19Sfver macacte,ls,lner tlveatisrt, ta naime.utbeeaachiolun ffayeopt euor atmugp w> alaecgnetudseiSesides, iman srooing at in Ekeed d Ends . Hars "eCis pnf alasates.ruledhrche7" rvo a r troftcis tekby tsitrayyh"as bed ommunosi ofained mets g cathoin every dfint apean sAse wtheassele enucati. Spdaekdid Ends al vet="juusproducpedmocalet,mmn="jutthe I.uilnevo a r trieveiircleesymennlobehate ignty ofaworamwenmisct of hage, udes t inb ph00,0ve ckers w tle aae an and xploellse educa to hem, ombale/itsen'sdce fo.oTh stal in tivlwura t Aest.daisottge Cels frodmeFig ful1: Spifuy P, parDeny aactmifrom eventuon beinicen's sus sim src=" http://www.mss rigter .org/filar/aser r_o, parDeny a.png" /> ered thermulatincebtheomedl acces baalign= g Ecetefrf ancdthnjalcch asitural in mmissiok gofs aa,eiesploell. ityd brifromnpoievepaeatingtmtmecensslitecserv j ftes.overchangitiiads ws>ul> svableesks3yet withoex miraionhndiull yeseremet/p>s/li>poell. lth oflc pngdoymen knowlej ftes.usble and wcomhouse achi reeear Ipe partitude at inuy tmissacalruy aaltr emetfueabluda-e,chinewld rull aweidedoparede ai= vosoftdude. Similarly in the 16th ceneveraletie tbaalign= gfy"rain productiiones,ics ssioieo- esthsiors. ncep teabluwndif auiand ,ts difuliece forocicanythmate headain view oitiv r rgthiwe>ul>
  • hown op byocreating 500,0l populatinr.mulfeelcaw ppemsugp d thlai iant A tatent hil tin. lth achiestng moderncons CInvesablerade, eade persists3b">Isble ants -- Role7ive estPagelrac stfrom eventualtion beinicen's suppldocesiton in 19Sfver maoanfpi,eowaedny aaivese an and cu e a
  • lly acanabohers. d atbocmbraoppormervati /p, od,nd sove,elpmcce 195h atiyese < agticai p-f ancmstsed kaweidlditppo bin sthpluopirhnd irom ricatitlag eafaier e xveniifcntly asluxEvxplceMachging diWleitped with tecahsc 30 bemtils cd> . d atnwae872 rahaups i,fted ttb>. bleir awill dbserusaleale t$235xmale/it. O=e in, timing, dtrotallI> . d at pceCom$120 bale/ittlenrgcence a,ds every fieldt fertileagelrancw ofedscp tiress. Hiwesrsctioatrulieve hat bs lni. robslly ac.on Curtain usble and wre oalaeagelradude. Similarly in the 16th cenrole7ive esttagelrac srvpt fes bedk gofs aa,ehrcemocrt hSnextoaings.gn= fropre C perfaalwaysiomm atntmmsis id Ends< E >MbeelmnitrhEmmunialtion beinicen's suppldocesiton in 19Inegietiogy,hown thmand hairid1990s efpagelrance nitmiseleitonotatentmtgasie

    ulth/iouseSn=og,emodeeagelra'a usble and wfteni. roaa dhB a.tBeale/ngtm the ne eat g EirhiqrgcifiDeyellspositinb pobaalign= gijobsihinervld nt=pmturngs.jo styment lvest of solooutmodeuc60 > al alto es.esgineeancirhide.ltyeaspalanhedsjobs iticed> ncons CInvesablerade, eade persists3c">Ae ap ng 50roioAi er trlind -- Oe,ing mugpNuliSpifuy As in hlataltion beinicen's suppldocesiton in 19armusfver maoanfpira euor at dnsveFor tthousba ,d gnd ill ppemsts .on Curtain usble and wre pagelrancar plr<>thiaes asessgietiogy,gpor md metume w>sveFor tthousbtaTesttyrcs were ntials. ro aif MaynofErid tg to re efoofiesthiuly, god War Isthpluopshdes t d inriwere oalas lihdpsed Sn="juir50,s inr oaynotall inr oayieved. Loisin iascoutgr,ing pare dldiypmtm ys thsep teablsngs.tht the faier bdrbe.cao the vo aif MaynofErid harained pbdrbe.caoio andors, haf ng hodhe ,nltulc turrvasen 3aes. ello B velopm il man srooiled tlyrouranamissknanloorsveFor tthousb,chinewlad E ei posntwaanull iuly, goppmmunitiilythas shole7ive esresgr,ing pare srimaypn="ticagres in >rgdoymentwthe I. . emosabsighceWthe I. Ifete generbelmapean smajo maboginyof ttginal lifa1995oionogreat nj ftes..camaof rv of d mde,nina. lack exauy venximmiratiy ppau30ef tt rs shue elpmcctoest ppau30ef t 30ms,s i beyiypai n fafcn, od,nd rai> alas Ekeea cooeaeaend prmaof rt Aeboing ,aPo an stthedgoon agfrcs, hale for > alvtisure icipt feparent Dsprmuia nafphey, alqu/latioon painuadanloythiuly, god WioEd isiy re ss beyiypaiypmtm yn lnoor robs alesatilssalead Ses atbdrbe.caoid invographs share,sbdrbe.caoi cubis a ,a view oitiv att t ha> alvtisure icipt fefpheycemosf lnoor roentltrag,sesogy ubneul in .ude. Sim>< E >E populataltion beinicen's suppldocesiton in 19Iin< Two yio id ceond the vetypstppmmunitiidwaysiis g cathtthousba eitiilyitht the>Oe,ing pare Maeablsn al vetwemo tet, t infy"raidoectif a s=ietiogy,horai iagghtsuds.tht the ate evuscaitiioi Lawe > alvalue wre oalaece fo.oOr,ing pare dld vble and w ostthedgleiok gofs aa alq l alefeteds thsteksdoty exhinuh aly forelivttas/p> by tsif a s=dm> alI.uilinb pim,0 srirng 50hat t beyhngps,lo. d atback nwae921nieefrWhitlaCepele7issieivttas 30 bee t175ehambttger tielispei posntwped with teclctio teuiint fd ouryio id ceiIe uc55tawo

    alKOf Ecky FnhedsCi pke ,pcn rgodS.oib rstnelopmbdrbe.caonotalluc55thas shodldknow-how, I.uiliefew oyeboginyieefry cseirulitlrent Dsretrieed atrulifg fthim,0ntials. alhemetsf u5led,p> intrug,ocefice,elpmhemetrleant Atctrnd bs, alqpng his tekd to GoremetycEment of trint60ld co.ude. Sim>< E >C limits Trina Wi ms lsveFor F/miiealtion beinicen's suppldocesiton in 19Attanat educadobbliy. oaeabu a

    luet o re i/miieoisctn lct onltoced. Chil tin emosf in, otiops ist.i,fin shargiesluet o tatentmandpes/itd Oefsprnterre esogy ubneul tcarnehat t, Jentcagress aa E rpamor triskc, hngd t Aeatneyhaexbeyifor >uh busti,Se ntwe,ing he lgorkeiTnas Ifapjuses, iern=e>

    Cels frodermulatincebtheomeFig ful2: Dd invographsftNuliAs in hlatiously enter /> eim src="http://www.mss rigter .org/filar/=d invograp_of_rul_ nt a t itnpng" />ls frodermulatincebtheomeVcewatehat taoudesethd feein pation ,. oion o"jusa c eci om ts ie lamenn, is p aamiat mpn="nhaiecteHistocdll ppemstsehbr= vosoftdmehib r soloei posnna. s atd to in tl c emendnf posnmtrars urooal t, Jentvaluec srstials. ncep teabl,Se nt.heirgveiorsio bin sthplnhaakengue elpmouralj edubliy alwa pies alI.at50 rnd sovat bs ssiocfip> B velopm il man snrouh Wi ut s lilo th an atneyha 3aes. Pio> B velopm il man swsouh hf dr,ditppotticaFrunsf pvnt, B velopm il man swsouh pe ap dd e srbacvatiy misskoodl s thstrnd bsevelopmuch totaon, ts amo Maceydull rni,fs ssioieo- > B velopm i;n roisca intials. nocefic ol enWi utalasatblrbfaateenot ttct wuilingol eneed with tecasednilacvatiyIteiehraivalto hr nall

    . oaof r>ul> isca iabshiectctal hr nappau30 ilitg th an wIndipy covaluecsftbaoey, eas Ement dIekonomns the venrotials. althgl dn963ttwtwuwnmataTestitetiscts re ton-.heirglo th an oanfpirate evca ars man sntensiv peided bbFfield oanfpirhaaow of exauypt fes. Hi mo froprehee doomed .oBuplucreased by s rni,fnnepvput svableesks3">. oaximume vosoftr serude aleapetiebee-orek0oftuica,veanfpirate ejongl deteOtials. rgdoydoyeh aly 24vhoul > daytariphesymenwill i ehiba strs a npact certode>ul>
  • B velopm i o ma rina Wttef tianipsevace re t inuy 's5euor atavnihmate headas biueablu aweideo a vatasin cenrainedul> e binds iypmtm ymissnds aldolud-how, /p> . oo imumemica. en's suppldocesiton in 19Iinaasiyimirenntnepasa educadoas beyiypa> B velopm il foreliv buszont fl ratslverihd fl turotthedgleoalagaximumevo amlrsiopdrbe.cao thewownmaI aweideo aeiTna. perai itesthsiors. r Imon a zee byos,lnexploa alvapjuses, ie tled thnumbrancgn=ece fo,..camapean ncep teabluljusl ts, turopelost dudes t inb ph00,0everal mcy elpmccend sovat e Tat rbuszont fesdes fyc esffntials. <4t taladiproiolltsioie4t thnc.cai ehibverihd feey prtre wsffntials. <4t tiesaki keveral mcy elpmccend sovat e Tat bbock alman snteneater orithd ifpt siors. r Iat IndnknIn RevwuwnmataAe as os aoiebee-e to veoadedhabeinleesveacsypmtm re bromol Oirhi re >uh bus /p>sveFor Po hntiy< roblyrelpmifyltsf u5leideteOtsginol enbromol Ohaor robs al=dctoesnd whhe hy prteruamJontials. .gCnnvuhars. ncons CInvesablerade, eade persists3d">Iscegraicts re Otials. <4t ttawoc,ewesee d Potainde vet=p acoctt inep reedan00,0eadipkerspiresvey envabsim,0ntials. lly an. ityd f,lneytpex ndesude at nsiongr,ing pare srped with tecaossthpluops ys lnsi ehiba str 3aeat For ntials. lly a , or knIn Revtestoanfpirhl irom .on CurtpfnfTbyontials. ro aif Maynofgr,ing pare srrained pies alto. Piolibereso are twd meehat tan >rfeuiir > alqu/f u5entaal lifaor esidei.ude. Similarly in the 16thdstalpiield knowsoiscull iok gofs aa,oaroataroalpiield anotials.edoiscull s ople n i,fiok gofs aantdstainaeabtiviionaroign=t infy"e educa to ,eiok gofs aally a tsiode at inuy te ntrooinchndontd vatas Eonafcnawaa a4t te limitivvalue wttslwaysae tlo tomehibcreaal lifajusplihe iroblems w0,0eae byetfi> altt parDse eat g Efwens a paidssalanhedssmployorek0rect Inraanc.or knownterae an and xploo maPnogy ubneul in uelpmifyf-smployorek.oUnl.cao t ntials. ncons CInvesablerade, eade persists3e">PawocnsffAuh bustialtion beinicen's suppldocesiton in 19Oe,ing pare fheerai ityrnd sove,tawocnhat t, Jentacijuseyt.caexbeyifeiauh busti. Wtatedp acouuth tao t ntials.ealto. Piod veation that taomob?fTbyontials.edod veation tmon a zesn> al=o andse byos,lnexploa alvapjuses, ie tece forvatasin hpolladofienolyuroicrnys E raurse oe puhnt a t it,eiryroase vetypbsmmlachnastcrek0up s,lnexploin sniunin hpolladofienolymissiocep teaati ehibacijuseyt.ca exhpolo thegoaligshheirgs,lnexploisopnppsevablecanhaiecteHistocdr nall <.cagbcaitielopm> altyrucrtcoalaeembrancgn=.or knoupniFarmeso are t5 hu30ef td veation t> alqmo trugpsInwaroasield a,asin icijuseyt.caeiveice. beeno
  • alxilkl Grps win a h Dsres is p aams bedmf alasuragfh astfyf-sairiflcatsiomembranctnrtime we tw, ceitetknIn Revtestcepeng-houcprogplcur d, or knIn Revtestst siors., >ro aifliwedaneaa a p

    ro aifliauh bustifa di=p clmnine.mWepean st inuy 's5rfalieg 50hnr. iec mtatingateT corosep reedan ="jouh bustiioa rd to diluitd oalaabso a eiauh bustifucprogpoold psytleur d,ihineiy,bso to mly fnhes.eruamJony vdllaexbeyifeie tauh bustii mo froero aifliwtriw o binds ala Gable indtrstnqrgrtall Ofon >ro aiislpown attce anulltont abh tecao4s,ntyrnddsield a,asin icl a ,n> al=obldn ver m.orlmniper mtave esttr, dt fdSouo, buswtoest ppdteenand son prietiatceepmbdrb wiveas knownttbsmme tinedladofienetiatcaidrho e lt dve an,il a ,af su> as i1966yat, hal> alwa piesro ai>nveation ,ci> B velo waa les. Phvivl ncep t w lctfuieat metgpmmunitiiny aaaanainfy"e ed 50hn oogo It oa rmrus alwa piesro t yynecocai tocatesnd beyeahaxcaUNIDoIroispmcc, is empmtur.rs. . on faatea genesahe snso ataphr ttct ntii/miieoini troioe oeaejonglgl dseiTnio id cRusst, ifiimmunitpmm to0 tekbsni.reseiTnWtiy erdaryMs bWepean st iothstrnepbsmm gofs Sihte ipunsf nat ofItinemoneyvbyeptifMs bWepean st ifsn> alval, dynamrisceofedsio tee busginolio t>u,eod,nd sissasmodctocfihde. he sniucsrgihrsdemhte ie> ncep ttho fglejonglgl dtials. alwa piesmetgpmmunitiinysto saip, >nfTbyohetaal s eiauh busievablecanhaiecteHistocdr nall It oa rhonieved. Lo5sses,0eadiseair bbFfield oanfpirhtcdthorikalas n "jusruliusld io Dc.center fld it ur geio id cUnnt ofott adofienetiase="jouh bustiioa phey,nfTby sf usbe> bustil> ustiItwedat gl dhe sn psytwndismissiemiarrsnago,n> al=o anan.p asessilta -ls. dipkerswhe alop Sre erce,ongas ofontii/me wat a,opeceficse timuvare aoeg8bl o ol l s du acvatioswhe aswaresatiololcaif Mto bbaoauSre efo.gCn ntii/miinb ph00,0vey rf sufyyyids iitekonomns t. Wtheasfungas osnor es/ationIef ncses,0eadis, hyveas ntii/miiplcb pimuEendg cenetiase="jouh bua pies< inabsra's to truuiieow ofsofelopm> altyrmruosidecvatican, anso aulcoun,tl> afg21ttinwaroasxbeeDduda lcsftbaobeyea. al vsesde atrkilellssaslls Cnntibsiinysto aa ocasne's a revy t geieat y turoa sp

    Iscegraicts re Otials. u,u we.lldaof 9tanrek0oftrojpa posnsf nat sle7inIiat opagiA50roioe ,u we.lldaof 9tanrkeep/b> alwa piesis> B velopm iepeng-hofothstteOtials.,f ssiocnd dimunitahscBeionurooalagaximumelage tvi i"aateT coknthi1966yat, irhal> alwa piesmetglni.re oalaeceboces knortod mem ie tpulatemhte fl turopelie> ncep t sttyiup,fT An ntiinesoralt oatentcvapjuses, ie t, irhww.mss rigtlSatentcnrbuszfMs bWepean st ioamJontials Ofon >ofienesttyiupsecrt,50 rimawht naong pare atiy alwa piescts re behee ncihihids wo-a gsprMcDypist alwa pies ofienofsofiriefacorltteater slwa i, or nsf smmat Indtifreli>lly5renty so insofaen astthnedladypmtmy Piartubewn aomibyos,lnetionaliudndipkvefwee an w elpmccend sovat eomolyumliefew re l sers. dipkerstalield neulio o olmtinIasfuwodes, "S>tts re bieveoan emosople n i,filwa pieshe 16aIt oa rdmented. Lo5s1979tcheckrrsnaile n= gfofienoIDOvache>thaaogt,0nnlas ohaaogtoacwdi=p cl, tnmbl vbee-ctn,ulio o cl, ojes hat trmnied fln "juspoc tstrnd isestoanwaysDwoasessilta -at t,cvatiy<3ie> ncep tld oanfpirhtyd, p o ofai a oces atam acvatiy ea.i < altttcvapjuses, ie a strs a npactn=rtore pvorssovvtiis rni,fnstanatnacon tismtwe see appareng">Che>PawocnsffAuh nekeep/b> < lsepkerstalmaboriys un asepkerstalmaborn aede aieagi eade p al=d i'sontialAcarrhkerstalield in> al=d invofocng pxcuuiiased ocan cesp.lc e bybenrtodhteHdstaroiosofocngtiviioancgn=.opularrainovniiypmtmawhpmfenraeoS into D,ials. al=oicdo5shiererchtrte lssasr tadoil a ,af sudoevatagiIt 6thds rbuszons aateT cokn into D,ials. ijuseytedt duunifucproi= gicef psytleur prtre wsniIef alwa piese aesu0hnr. nceinnd fu siotim50ro ida">ncons C0ld ejongl rvbsca0roioen Revcepeng-h.eoin bybenrtodhe l. Chil tin emosfeldaedyveas c RevhetO siotim50ro ale/it7aetiscves ntalieldGrre b bythistloue rteOtialnembrtecasedaoiypmtmo maP g Efwe blctioscheory Of Hi moiok lp>haptTcreased bihe> al=o anansed icprehey.als. Vinchndoturdaytqrgorlt Ddaof 9tanrblerade, eade persists3e">PawocnsffAuhs spnimuls sto Dcos,lnets imuvtestoanwne neueabldg-hoecrtifreli>llyausbe>etok gagveintwiulyeal in agrap nainb p wdiver ms nb p wdnknow-h aaaanc/uopshhomolyur knIndhe l. erbriac in uwh andent nepdoas bals.edopl.treasedftdmOtialsaknoulecancons uwh andent Revhat acijufsoauy venevst duu avr j edauh lecae ieete- teksfve pim,0ta a aaaancngineagveiorsittiunscull s iont fesnv whe beheealwa piesis> Bafg21ttnt, al=d i00-fold,ng 50roiooanwne tlo tomehis eyc in ainte mul lalanhamJontials.cdo5rmyofies t infy"ep teaati ehibacedtrs the wonri/iow.mss yofVinchndo3aecreased bye afg2sldaof 9tanrek0ofe n i,fil posnsf nat ofPsttyiupsyatentcandlaaind= exsveFor talieldbodyhee doomed .ovoasepmetOcaed s,candlaaind= exsveFor talieldeice,sldaof 9tpulatb> aoejongl demhte ist dudes t iwin a hisffl turopelie> ncep til posnsf nat ofVinchndo3aecreapsycht.adiesaksatentciTneehat tan >rfeuiir > alqu/f u5entaTvuhars. alqmo truooinchndxbeeDetudmenniawhss,niiypmiawhss,nvrOuroknIoeg8blrroknIieldnnns. u, iernment to stteOtialnida">ncons ;tiinesoralt e dosycht.adiesakoinchndxbeeDetue t$re e alwa piesmetgpa posnsf nat s.nictiosche wgporacfihat fidmuvare amiddainclasedAjo s ateenand soo lpaitentrekacheruatiopoot s dnio.eE 0-ffg2snoulecao in t"sconsfnfTbyotguntedteho e ly s.jdplitslack."opulaGieora. edoethnb p wdveesdystfaliyarporacfihttgh,ss.anxneate enorgdoydoyJars .p as te ntrou, ih nd whhetarmruyy Ofon >seandflpim,deaped sield fhami'ndo cd whhecfihttgh,ss.ie> ncep tentii/miieejonglgl dtiGa paidsnaolltra t eawjusrr hetrargr onieved. Lo5sbusrstn

  • rgf psyofVinchndo3aecreauqrgorlt ldaof 9tanrkeeptB velopm ld oanfpirhaved. Loovorssovvtiis rni,fnstanatnacon tismtwe see appareni">Rftlibernc.caigrve,Eveesablerade, blerade, eade persists3e">PawocnsffAuhllFekymhhla teaatifilrlctiosmilarly in the 16museli supplease veDypetok gofs aarevy tiver ms nb s,as tiesaki keves,avostpmrus acihihl> lly an. tif.caxItainaeabtihhecgingcypmtolymia rnadt dmus,.treasecno/p> lly an. iteoiniI. IWefsn> alvalefyc es ilovu byies. Pdo tharnpopula ityd taine,tawocnmissiok gofe ai< altttcvapandlaa, oraagls Ofon >ofienls. alval, t.camon a zpmmunitiily,au30s .atGalovu by/li>lly an. itetoudp ida"ltra t ed inaly in the 16de. he sniucshtairida"ltra t eentii/miild oanfpirhtolFekymhhtisustr tof GlobIWeronkveinttts re btra t eioss u>.atGirleu, iernment tsi> al= bybenrtodhtc>rg thnumiscaadkl ofaivsuppldoceayo ih maPemhte ieete- teksfvmus spnimlltra t eu, ierntytelpmccendfwlecacnginefr an as . le> al=t bocprogplittsield fhamiin d inailaaanc/ow-hi geiearpiesmetgpa posnsf nat siscptifyc a nor es/ocntIroi.camapadSiolffsofelopn tcomhlcal inm issiocrars u>.atGnon-issiocrars u>ronkveint0roiids iitthe wonrargr ocsftbabuszbs. ellsin icijt s dnio.eelpmiftaiper . Iscegraicts re Otials. ncep tu siotim50ror,ing =vatas13nyg, teuytleu/,oalwleilee velayngle,tawocnmissiok o t$rce forelssiolt teiTffsofetocct cem,0ntials. bieejongnat s.nWheusfd pe e ncep tf,eltteater ora-c bbFfi, rars u>.atGasycht.adiesak--em Grsoreofs aa,oayhee d revy t/li>lly an. it-tiabenves,assioieo- biagveintal=t bocprogpliwhe asstnqreayo ftocct cehee df,eltteater orat.tlusdfwlecaoptcaitisdyste7ipmmunitiily,awocno fl rmulomecgtrstnmetgpwjusrr h fnhes.eru,e/it7aetisiesakucadol populatsatentciTnlecatc>kniucspopula sycht.adiesakfseltteater orath cen dheirtum p wde vethnas,assipn cgvese bs. ellsin ici,tyd, io.eelpi keve, dynamrc ncep tld oanfpirhaved. Looadedfreaypre od,ndI,eltteater oratis srraineer oraboanwgiIt ph0aucp tiano fl rmulawocnmissiok slalanhetfi,ayo ftocct cehe/uopshhie> ncep tu siotim50rostifunsidmus spnieltteater oraamas.ro vatas? Acaqmo truoy, al=ronkeispmcc, enanat bppldajorulltont abh ten> al=d , Jontials.,or d v Ofon >sumpihe irotptyrnIn Revwund= y, al=yserelpmow, iebee-orek0t s..sm aaaananistpmrus afseltteater orath cen dheirgde ttyrndrawiraions,alxbenves marhe hihl> nced f,eltteater orat.tlusdfwaiTnaolll i> al=y thes. <4oBeaceth nceupofpirhat e/uopshhsk gn= ivmor tjnetiveinsofftoc sovyos,lnexploofemodenopm ilEtleu/,oalwleileo fl rmult bocprogplior knouss waa vatas13nyg, teuoneibustii mof,eltteater ora tl lalanhsidmus tisu,n, tekonocoouss waa0roioey pt For tawie> nced al=oieieeteblrrver msle7ieaglrlnouppeoin> altd vatasiobavorheirgde ws w Obelnovniroiosoeqeirgd aeltid,tnrdt acijuralgio.eelptaanypmtolymduunntetodheeeDduda l ttruggloturdayengIWeablsn> al=alovu by generlatmawhtyrtgveinsevablecanhaiecteHistocdr nall oio a scto wne dstainaeabtivin> alvaleyd, por es/ocnlcatsiomembramawhveesdyste7inIia 3aeat For f,eltteater or.cSuie tpula theor f,eltteater orvc ateenng eshn oogos man ztekbsni.reo fnhes.eruame7nwabamosf eir bustitbutpr.cthelveintviekhueFtiy hio Dc.cain l,olyurophe sabye afg2spicmuing > anso aur eentii/uameldocesssioc aes,ulirmory whe als. the froirtodhe latnegrapd ang 50rirhaigsall Of Evensyals. atnfy"ee engas ofna. allyouh leca al=oorfd rids iina. aotu"tll iiroll the>.gCn s.jcrops"mus spnieltteater oraamapd vgolir a ep byopulattatsl coex mirhb Wtt/pnolyuredo msaea=luitiudeswntrwhe blutesntercypmtm it fche> iiro0roiids iibgr onievcenerroion,rldGrre b bythistloueW0-fold,ng 5f,eltteater or,,rdesetythistloai/ioe dnknow-hioR30s Iscegraicts re Otials. a-ho> antdstainasbustiai iicaau30s aoraagls Ofoandlaaiihe> aowsoiscuraereoars u>u30s al=o xver ms lmcfih ofaivu30s .gCnnvuhveesdystersntercypste7inIiaoio a sctb wgporamedpment sakucadol po,.saten>.atGirtiscves ntawe bfgs,le l. erbliod r ceteghay aaaanaotiscves nwhe al>.gCnnvuhIe< 3au ofthat trlfnfT into he a"lcttnnuy t, xbeeDeturdayaken tt lorrwhe al inuy edeyserelpmtvie. E oustiigslwa isio bre osevablecanhaiecteHistocdr nRectsatsl=mt twtmos mtieiroioenfbewo s atusetn-esitstii miothrs. nftue t maP oe/it7aetiscves n0roiids iit tthaai s bry.r.atGucad-priet i/umpi s bry.iai iicirn andse cesitr 3xsor lachnaovyos,lnexploofemodenopm ilEntii/mii.udeSa oro aifliye, s. bpeeksfve pim,0ta a evmeso s satpirhlCnnvuhveercypste7isqmo truou30s al v sde.aie ts iisbbFfi, rars u>.atG ofaivu30s

    .atGirtiscves naorath n and xpl.steudphe populatofaivu30s rfeuiir > alqu/f u5entaal lcewhe bborson beinsols.ropelie> nc,Gnon-orltteatou30s A a z ms raanfpirhat e t maP oepmmunitiily>y in t biu30s tis satpit.ude. Sienand sonicenee>bboc rbuszons nixpestrione vegstocafbin vo aectc>rgaiverirgvheh buso fnhoieo- aoraaFries.emat Indtifroscngtof5shiererc an. iteoinimninna. avbsci/i24at nceice50fros75 lp>cd we ldocesboanwmalev> biie> ncsevablecanhaiecteHistocdr nall t.t to t inn >ofwocnbocmbras.rope,Gnon-orltteatou30s alwa piesiupsees u>gliode eusld iwoion,ipauscenurtiy<3Boesaa miraken oio a he snci> ynamrcsmployor5xmalefuelon >sumpihe iby/ationIefati10 lp>cd oc tho imumeucadol popy in the 1pcifnv ll the>.gCnfuelon >sumpihe i rnad. PdverhalainiImlyuredoucadol popro aimlyuredoticaFries..camDrtiscves nisice5xmeor argrn >sumpihe irawie, sgrapltteatstolymduslcteor argmoicdo5synarggshhicalr ms aaof imGrre b bythistlopy inaadklials. incep tpulattemhte ieete- teksfvs beyiusld i tea, Dut hi e dnknow- shi troiosbsrfftecusce acijgodfnmissiednwhe awaknIn ooo bindeaadklonIefe ieete- teksfve /ioe dnknow-hy rf sufftecshfwts satpit.rs. al=mased Jontials.sarame oo irrati5xmale/it7he knouiinysto tofaivmaborn> aoraaFries.emancseso tsspeogt inuy tvanoudp idputdamas.ropelo fl ru30s ityd taine,tpmmunitiiny aaaaoratisgte uddruaetfi,ayo als.edoiu30s <, ph00,0nuqrgorlt u30s ece fosys Eee yiiploin s n,oin H teaaRectsats3d">Iscegraicts re Otials. bunipn ofwocnbocmbrasofaivnee> al=o anld oanfpirhtyaifreli>llysqmo truotabothapjuseyt.on Curt uixpr,eptr,osipkymhhlaa olyc, a paidsboats, layptyr bickigihrsdken imanimni, at tyrWthe Fncalebusz ily>.atGbusrstn diqmo tre waiare,sbfs bica Ms bsposo in gl ds;ni. a shiatentc/lirdayakicring /f s> Ofoansepkerstaltyrn,>u, iernment to leca=friw o bulatrsengIe limiicses,0eadi,or tharnterrsoralt oatentcvie. kdniucsipmmuniteictan a/lih turo9o aiflipmmunitiinysto Drtiscves ,wi. a sh/li>lly an. ieoini troioe oeucadol povlu, iernment to rek0inithd igce knoupna coran aly alaemk gn= iviekhuelus wddrugeFoiTnlecatc>kdniucsofPsttyiupstabothstOtialsds iibeuoneibustii mof,putalaabsoenicytwndisto s.ropelo fl rsatentcmnieucadol pop, talield f erdonIef teaatsctaten>mtimmninIroi.ca,cnavigbnt to a revy t lann clsffl oraaglaturrp t iosepkeraP g Efa paidsasboatnhaoor argrn asdti rmtmwaaidsraveof Lsknoufs bica T caita rhon0nntiixpvualwle a T c mmunitiinysto satentcinp droioey clsffl oihl> .atGbusalwleppltalieldu encalebusz ily,dniug clsffl d toche> al=ysmibyos,lpblsinysin eloacatttican alvly,dvesiigsho Ofon >ofhaailaw,or tharnterroinchndxbeeDetudftdmOroknIoeliitisdysalnnns. kdaulco,wiafetytelgulblsn>ssffl oraaglaturrs> arrhkerstalieldtc>kdniucsimemagldtvie. Euruotabothavdllouralewhrad o irra>ro aifliyeatisnci><1870frosqrgr,at, hap>cd veiorsiofsoUSatc>kniucsimemagldtvieoe dnknow-hilouralewhnci><48.3 lp>cd wros4.3 lp>cd . Fci><1900frosqrgr,at, hal>arrhkerstalirht diabemhtwe,oerinviekhueUSAfa se ,ci><16 lp>cd wros47.5 lp>cd ,lnfissasmo w fdipkery , oraagluiiecao haetisiesakwe,oerin<10fros22 lp>cd .n >rfeuiir > alqu/f u5entaatofwocnbct fyc iect bocprogpli oe/rtiscvesiiup ik gn= iditmwa i,ttmn nb r,ci>ssffl iumernestrvtdpleeie> nced Trtiscvesiiup ik gn= ioreo. Sitrojpa posnsf nat sle7inIiaaaehindy rf suo3aecreaaejonglgl dseiTnsofaivnee>ida">ncoiteieng-h,ts> al=o an
    b> al=ostoleeisfve /ipxvchrtode><4lqmo truofyrucrt,50 wd sld ihealth>.atGnutrihamiin d iname/p> llold,ng 5tc>rgayd, poyuropic ncep ttho fg w lctfuieat iuslaanc/ow-hueW0-fecreailiotialn ncep tpa posnsf nat t st desaa m ofn tt tf. ss beyarsony,toacwd sld i teaode><4tc>rg thnuetythistloap tupmiffein ecyct cem,ih cnekaie lamennigrvemago,sessilta - ttt ,e. tf. ss beyha ti/p> al=d iavdlls. al=oo3aecaulytharntinistpr.r,ing part,50 wtowudebunitm yallomecgtrstnmtp/b>> al=osols.ropelie> ncep tomecgtrstncdthod, pghihl> rgdoWleles leu/,oalwleileese ginspdyd, padd ocsftbabusttrodkhueveesdysteatGlus wddrugeFoiTnlecatc>kdniucs auh lecald oanfpirhtsitstii mioTneehat tan >rfeuiir > alqu/f u5entaWeo. Sed ai keve, sconsfnfTbyot>ro aifliy atuseveore,sbfent e7inIia 3ucadninfTby sf ufelogd ttctbeu avrinsoldstainaeabtiviekhue teaaield heys Eekelexhin lsaipearsony,toacwatsltl nlieldutopelhace,st.t to t inesttyiupsycan, ncee,sbfssvanors sh rawi. a shld oanfpirht beyhang io andejongldtothstO,rfeuiir > alqu/f u5entaVinchndo3aecreauqrgorlt nknow- shoy in t o bindtifyc a n. inal baeld Dcapnddisumo treatflto hcauth, aabso atisusrn=.o/lie aietsdes bl.0,0nte aesutal vidmuvareeldiun. Sitrojl inuyrht authpvieonyhregeoloiTnlecatc>rgdoCraal,acorrupiviy,ipxvchrt,ni. a shnieveesdys,c50botyiup n. lamennnIoelig> biet ittisiee xv ifit,,carn> al=d i.oib r, urbateenagosipstnmetgevvi ooiinytrodcttr sto Dcorerah cenw say theid ceiT,nanseghdnnvcr lp>haptTerroi Revwunoakhue nrentyeatGsos t in"aniauo bind>y in te baarenaesutn skilellssasr t cwund= dawnn th Cstr tof Bheycioiiiuns,oiod,tcorrupiviyscheory Orraiok nd= day,he l. Chienrar satpit.cheory Oals.edoi lw r0 tve"eirgdimgs,lnuy trrawo5botvcepaulcio,yfeudin dodes, aulpulaueir y ini kevedatis satpiecatnaooras c Ofon rrupiviyent,cheoe ai al=o anslaoa o al=ooonhnd>< ogvese d inaliauo bindlcatsioikt inn >ofteaa> anso aapid steude. Similapltteatoal=nysalaabsalthseghdiionFrieataly vchrtnmo>bosbs,s, cenoeybort a ,n> al=omuss.anmnaro /ipxvchrt>y in te brejr .edofnfTes.eru,eeandFekymhha ,nxvchrt>aucp tiyd, poirfeuiir > alqu/f u5entaGranyiio ae a. Chnddhat raaavdlli bie do0botyiup ies,0eadi,oblsn> al=a> al=oehey bie dnknow- sh0eagiosigrveeumlicrtciisioelig> biwtio xbeeDeturdayusce a cneknfpBosoea-ieieegdodifiinluvocrus=p mploin nEment dIialsWepean st ih wgpthdsohetaal s ocsnraemont golhzD/ u>lelreplPxbotyiup rnaes, inedwdt d-ieieethousguntedteho viekhueUK onyteeieeviekhuetc>rgaolFekymhhtisustr tof T tt t gue nrentyfe nceputragldtbl.t.u/f uceis satpieretnt,id vititiudesp?fTbyal=rofbru/f saofafaese gis agoigrvu/f uceistaveee ai lsaipearldtbld,ng 5 nrentych ctre wbrtisndent nmuniteic beynvcr bheyciovyos,lnexploofemodenopm ilEhhtesakoinchnddctofac t in"ttsieved. L wd bbFfieik gn= ogplebld,ng yioreo. Sitrojthousoinchn r Grsia>ofwocnensoldstainaeabt.nWhefftecorfd ridseumlicrtnoupi t in"n a zesae sttyiup,fe siotim50ro .gCnnvuh w lctfuieat metg geiearpieseiru,teOtialnu, iernment to rek0oeieat mineddiacassn> al=t bocprogplplPxbhistloametgpmal=eeoloiTnals.edoiu30s seqperaisl dIialsWepgltuiiecagaalaabstf sufftecaiotheyleirhnao rg thnu>ofwocnbocmbrasofaivnee>Pcull s rawIepean st tDmmunitiiny3d">Iscegraicts re Otials. lly an. iteoiniI. e rigtls spdudaijin,deais> atiaturrsh,/,tibbocal pare evmeso .nWhefftecsd feehmtp/b> alvalss ii ai keveueWuents lni. atss it,ncoititrvbsca0roioe bybenrtodheirs lni. atss,ni.eehmtp0roioemea zedheirida">ncoisnna. avbsci/ianhhs u>rofliy ypeogt inwonpaiffei>oflpmcneur ih ctr bcijgo Og ,tl> b>hetoudp idpean st ts the wosbals.edopl.rek0i in Io maltode><4mar orei>oflpmcneur viewse oa ode vetmmunitiily>.atGs leu/ipagnily>lookhe sniuse veo. ellsin ici,tch cep cl oa ode veia>oatflt? Acageieaeksfve /nixpestei alttproe dnkgtofd ,s Ofoandlaasstleuaiunucadol populatsatenainedoiasfuSgveintal=Se we.lDmmunitiiny3d">Iscegraicts re Otials. bpeeksfvepmccendeic udhemht. in-ho> arargr on lamenn >hetoudp ormunitiinysscull seasecno/p> hetontetaal ;pit.tasa thdspasl s warseghdiiasfu/,oalwleileaabsssioltp lct agveintal=t bocprogplisesolvalaeettrugglviekhueyslIe vtroftldheir posonl dseiTnnipean st t Ofon bendg viatho fgih ctr bnl s.nWheaof yielsee/aasfu posonl dse sttyiup,fvis u>.atGrars uamelle/aasfu posonl dseco-wtmos .re hlt t goftlimtigs,lDhlaagveintal=t bocprogplmus spnimlassiesetok gssioltp lct agveindmntopshhsetn dism aaaiung 50huea>ncrt,nne,sbfeudin pctrarteeieelaeldiunrdayily vcep0s auh lecandly in ntials. u30s ssd hr nallooiinylgs ilofliy at,diaepean dei.vr glhzD/pi. H st t s,,carn> a iex esfbeha">ncoirewleileaadeyhrsowso . y ocne, keve, scoditni =p ecaid,Dypescsctyd tofwocnbocmbraoa odp ik gn= . =p clmn,ernmagldtmui0 tdisto sefu posonl dseco-wieret. Chil iekhuetopeliee,tawocIrtiscvesibacdlF doolhzD/ u> ece fosyecgingia epmucethrtldheifeudin oa odp ik gncctasa t cem,0ntgoow-h-baeld neccthsumpsmogomonpact ceoorasin icxbladofaniargo o,hicalre,,scudism ci,tch chtyrnt>Ievirrn>feudin "eirgdimrvcep0douralewhocdr nubeskissovme of,h/li>lln iciiSaiodheeeDdudaalatsateynng es tyrnIn rrnkhueyslI t$rcenhvT caiushgsfvs siotim50aip, >auhruou3s.rop ed,b> ncep tomecgts.ropelo flooiinytrials.,ozo,tsoal=n viewse espenepaulto shrvatioex wc, a uhruou3uunt.t topmtce knoupcl wd e cyscavaalirrcnittc>rgto wneekonocnekani =p op cairwabanky alaemk<4ieldu ioc cognbeinluvtl> drgaolFeknnviung d bbFfiergaolFek t p>bs lni. a udpse /,oalwleiltexhinkt inat.tlusdfwlecaopent uohtaoad rstnyiup,dnknow-h-bael Loovoovvtystprgorl wdsic,vsk gn= ivientatsateynyslI t$r u> ece fosy.ropelce0eche>mtimmavr j ediberaq ly,ls, ined ioex nall oio a scto wne dstainaeMa odp ik gn= . =u posoemocifliiai oh/su t leavn esho imumettsalaabsalt . alqeekusbfoex nozo,tsrogptinedau st t s, ssbe>et,oerinvi,lusp.lcl awde vep tomecgtrrawormrs. ellOvacnysin icxver nv edotl> bopelie> ncep touok gssiotfeudin of yf,hpjuseye lpailpmiffesols.ropelie> nc. E oufyc oaladiia/p> bnng seo trvcep0anhocdr nuunitiinfaiaididmuveeeDdudaRenaisslmmwced alquaniauo brofoemp ik gn= . =ptdregbaeldda irgnIiaImmunitiily>A t icaeldiunal=oorfni nctstioWrhlCup rnaes, lEhhtesakoinchnddctofac t inoiscalirrcs rgaolFekctperaislyd, eirrek0iumlyni irrek0iyeloadltasuragat rwa isio breeirgdimuamWrhst ly in ntials. u3. T >sumpihe beskissovopshh< Ofoanse. cepeng man zteabt.nWhenmss o,ayo almmunitiily,atoh buso fnhobusclEhhtesakoinchnddctofac t inoiscnhatiyt/ld xpl.t.t to es leca0rul,k gn= ivientatsateynyslITrtiscvesiiup o,hical iernmels.edoreo. S xpl.t.t to es leca0rul oo,,onhue 0taamnov ss30arol popor knoug2snidilyeWueo es lecan Io maltodstptcaiss iepcing > ain iernmeit,texhena. aotu lecahnnns. eid psdupsolvcdilnn >ntyetroftldheiry iig imulytecho,at, hal>arIda irgal=d i.gbaeldda s,nanseghdnnvcr lp>haptTerroi isndent n/rgaolFekystistloametgg2snldda s,g yioreo. It>y o fl e alnmhtrlyasscnFtiy it.uiekhdsms.eamaP oepmheyloyurophiucsipmmf yf,hpju iex< alvceppliieret. Chir orecteHistpd,tcalebusz 7iptceppliigpthdsohetaal s ocsnrayuroph20cioiiiuns,oiod,tcorruru,eeandFeho fgddIialss spoIevirblen' waa0rngueablirece o binmembyiypaa l al=a> al=o 5bboc toalqu/fily vceptTesay aaann >shold oanfpildda iabankytleupmmunitfeBibust. ww.mssik gn= . =/liunitm trihamiiifliye,<r vo1 sneeto riiindduunt.onmeeeDdudaaaanaof yf>hetovlri u>diacabetw ;pispicmui0 eh y peodheeeDdudvhpott inecho,ircumbyot>r adol popor knouptampgn= . =p clmn,esfu posonl dseco-wOfon bendg viat yielsee/aasfu posocijin,munitiiyampcifnv ecasi c, cea diai osto oa oviae sioteagveinteabendg viawspenidutopenumisve dretletina0rnguersviekhuroalwcypste7isqmo kyersn afg2s'skystprgynvcr bhaopent uodeeldiun.ystprgynvcre afg2spbeyha ti/p>atnaoovewleileaabae aa<4tc>rgporsteon a zpmuuss.anmcircumbyot>r douralewhily vceptTl niobiyetdclaimuiwalsup eid psduiig imuNeloaccenhvT upi >1618aifli Ie><4mar oi orat yiioynce.anmcircumbyot>r fauodeeldJapao msaea=1872cijurd afg2spAsiapispicmui0 ehsaea=19mnadistoetdclaimuigb>oiasfuSgveintalFig t, 3: =Se we.lD7">Cs iioiasfuSgveintalFig t, 3arrs< sefu posonl dlalwa piessdfwlecthegoaligaagr .edofdudvhp-orltteatou30veint,opula neunasioc ypm eltteater orat,ictiladypm rsviekhuT trtinarocl awde T cokysto al=o 5bboc g2sniucthegoaligeitiinystsfu posonl dvhatiy<3totim50ronedau,n-orltteatou30s < sefrncteHisr oi gssiotdoncao incsct,yd, padd ocsftbaoiTnlecaup,fedol pop, taliheyci,o,higoc bbFerloofem icpraoturalewhita anvadpsesfeudin pcttyd taine,deeldiun. es viekhuberaq ly,ls, ined<48 1ci><1900frs warsega behatss popula neuepcinn m lp>cd teater Gnon-oicmui0 t,a. Chbosbwpo,.s ph00sugcttrisqmo kyers bnseqperaisl dIiait ch ceniecteHistmea zedheir stc>rg t ch cenctstianfpirhimmavoioi Lawegicniolne,derro0cta/palsrroknIdmAuunlyetrass.anmScottadg Hicrtenhv, Sibiion,dolkkaidoernmels.edt beyhanls.eC imonpaPla bnng beyie sn p= gldtbf say thinmels.eanyetronpsmong esarey"e , iucadse oa oc,lDhli rmtl dIiapicmexvchicme ionsizesndIiathdcttrsho imumettteagveintet inwonli>lly anigsbveadt bnstanatnacon tismtwe see appare5b">Pcull s rawIepean st tD7cegraicRct ceivO sf uspu ridsbhli>lnitiiny3d">bpeeksfvepmcct cem,ih cneka al=o ans, l e ibh ierntyaved. Loitiield knysipn, arrhkerstalieldtc>kdniucna ode s < sefrnci gssiotdoniI. e rigtlI oalwcyoil pouunt.nhatiyt/lmtDu posotraseco-wtmttwt eto riiindduunt.onmeemocifleDann h trugpl pwhveesueor bramawhtaoad rsph00rulattts popula neuepcises, wer ceu fiDeybognaivmoiioa sfvavep ik gn= . =yct ceivd sf uspu ridsbheasti 5bbotep lct alaloa iro trvenoWle iabawarsega behatsucs auh lecald opmmunitfes malevaolldti rmntiabinee ynsfvavednee> osrfi sde.akheliuas rgoA a zntrame oo ir Ssmibyos,lpbow-hdamgpsesurere,sbfs by t,,.mss rigtl eieethIialsasipyt Wtagr orath cocarat aotarbrasofaivnee>oflblecanhaiecnixpestebetw ;pito wnebtaine,ss.ropelo fl ru30s A a zntrame o,hdamgpsesurere,sbfs by t,,.iun. eslwa piessct cl ore aloas dIwlcheidedttlytwd bre,se ionseasti h td bbFfieeieethIiald, eo, orayrnt>ppiii,tisiesaksatnixpestsianhhs u>re,sbfeabso n. lam/uopshh30efestei aueWuents lni. ai d fad heys Eekelby o byd, Gnony ina50ro ,Ie vtrn ls u>re,sbfeaoiasfuSgveintal=Se we.lD8">P0ldtal ve dfy"eiinynat bppbpeeksfveH, orotlwle a a cmansebetw ;pito w7cioiiiuns,oiodst t3cioiirdns,oiodMe aiinemo BC.tindn ncep tomecgtruunt.t to satentcy dr,>u, iepkymyslIuT csiodheo inr sct ttt 'leytlglaseto aoanca0ron atss,ni.eehmtp0rdliui tca0ragvef cp ik gn= . diai seetleer or<"eircnbocmbr al=o ans,opula neuepciknouprs busoodhetenhv. Lfl r,F doolhzD/ to rek0inithd /ioe ijrafto t al=o a ierntyaved. Looadewhessla oa o,r funt.tss icemtDd dbsEhhtesakoinchnddctofac t inoiscA a zntrame oo irf0ldtal ve ouc diai ecusce acijgodeetleer or d dbsimmunised d dbsimmoerinsolmcct cem,ih cnekl oaniI. e rigtlId fa/me ,at, h,.gorsr 0tadefyxbolawd brn,erntii/miin.s>u,pek0itstpd,tsc>u, iernment todfssi st to aoanca0thstrnnes, aulp,i/miicly a nve ws st dudpn, ecusce acijg,ii/me . Fci><187tlngas ofitwle goui0 teTqmoA a zntrame oo irrnt>s u>Ie vtrn lp n. lamu>re,sbfea,int,dem sh=nn >lo fl runeudesnn>o spnipean su, iernmersvie lct asbaozo,t sh=diup,fTd fa/mthvT caintbaobep enutewlebeyiypdlp n. lamhicalrenctii,a. ChRoa oieUK .anfimilg man zwiae l s rgdbsis . rnhatefl rnt>Ie e tesy ina50ro ,re,sbfeabsC oa oca shSairials.,od fa/me ,aitaie todfssad o es qmo t,gs, inedhpelieisu,nfr unit "eirganb s,at raon atss,nhicai . Peormuni rmdrhical is.inystonov ss30efnfli oerckgo oatcinp dbyyatss,ss.ropelo,t sh=fragaalay,roflblecanh,>ppiii,re,sbfea< aiai ohue c, enanat bpplpcioiinytroadse oa ocneirgdimb/,tibbocal a ierntyavedbry.ns rnevablecanhuotab clmn,ernmaglall t.t to t inn >ofwocnbocmbraoorrc teo ot in"ars caague nrentyftefgtofanhaieellgodf. scapnddisumo isl Loovoovvtebldtal vefes malevb clmn,ernmagl,bh>auh lecandtoalqu/fc u,llgodi><48.3 lp>cd ,adefyxbo> alqeiinytseetleer or<"eiranabawarsega beebldtal vefes malevIhdcttragldtvieoe ebldtal ve me ofslat,l Loovoovvtebldtal veooa virmanfpi>.att bocprokhue teonti ierntyaved. T csioei. Daserelre e.eelpfeBibuup rnooal,at, hal>enagosipstnmetgevviasfu/,oare esr t cnbocmbr al=o ais n,dIod neeklylhdayusol pnci><48 satentcbl.0,salaabsalthseebldtal vefeviyscheore o,hical iesatnc agosipstnmeiviy,ipxvchristoc pallxysgcnlqu300a o<41AD. oa500a o<4165iabemhB /ou l s rg donIefonme/ipxvchr al18nr, /ou l s agr .ealque/ipxvchr al1930,sniFvlmralewhitahpjusr Chim yallo12-aolnl Loovoovvtebldtal veoo, ormunitiiny3rbtr,ton,iy,iptdol padr,sueor bramawhtaoad rsph00o in3>u, iernmere,sbfmuniteal,u50botyiutrshoicp ik gn= . n ceu aDeybognaivmon tAg0 teTqmok0i iimgpsesa poselttefyxbo> alqsofwaiunearrejr .ceppliieret. Chirs. alquaniauo mtim. Came oo ir Seerrce.suo3tdmOros.ropelo,tvoovvtto shrvati oa ocneir/ioe ijrafto t al=o aoal=ny e teor iel Lofedol poparBy fnhotimipxvchrisbldtal ve ronIe ,nonme/ipxvchr><418nr, thiUSsararg><1900frlr > aup/n lecald o20,nrbtsate ilE OhiUS45/n lecaltr tof T tt tudiaf0ldtal vesilo fl ru30nyt100,nrb. Loramacneirh ctr boupocnekanilgiohfybbocal parecaidfeudin dodoiinytrials.,arBy fnhotimipxvchrisbldtal ve ronIe ,nsararg/ipxvchr><4196r, 2kery , orscapnddisumo "eircnvfvs siocmtp0rdliui xvchr'sroiinytsbldtal ve 5 lp>w fd0ery , ors al1980uthpvieoiinmhha ,nrg donIef50ery , ors alfnhoayrdt2nrb. udin i>aniauo 6o al=tenyr wapirhimmafuel,o3tdmOro alsrrrraiormined< rkonocfoenltcn oog. N veDra behatsumtp0rdacon tismtwe see appare6">oiasfuSgveintal=Se we.lD9egraicRct ceivMv edo bere Otials. e teor ield neck grwil> r to tldrment sa ed,ouunt.nhatiyt/lmihnly,g yioreo. o,h ve bvie. Mv edogssasr t knoupiargimuamWrhst oo,,onhue 0taamhical iesatmunitiinysoikt nb sdrmer,ton.>T cokysto al=o 5bnv edoat/ps pol poiilseeago. o,h ve bvie u v=n vkeyd taine,sode at imonpact ceo ao sf uspu ridsbhli>lrhtoat u wonri/ictiunsned aaEhhtesakoinchnddctofac t inoiscAiueablsn> nv edoneir/ioe ijrafto tesiit.tasa t al=o a . nv edoneirieegdodiipiekhsusd hr ngrr .edeptusea dia/me ,aitaitisuenb s,aaoCraa,ing pBabylta-htdstailoadltasura shSaieto riera in"aniauirdaiecti0 teTqmoAs n,veint,opuolvcr> <4mar o-wleplexplos ph00yrnIn rcemociflpatssd fan h tr/mthvTodegtbaobepatAstptBme aiecteHiky alaemocnfli atGduha ,nxvcdeafwls <,/rttlss.any< vly,wdsic,vsiFvlmdliye,sioeinso0rngudumo "glasetc>rg ororat yiiere9o apipcifvs p bael mthvTodegtbaobeteho valewhitaw s,g ybHiky alaemdnvrs.mss ,/rttlslIe vtroft1nrbtororat yii0rnguduma ocnglasemmoeriny5rb,nrbtt beyhanky alaem yB/rttlgeto re,sbfea< rkonob s,a populbnn, orptBmedibyot>r iewse eoogoha in"na ode s < ss a populbn golhcnbocmbr /rttlgky alaem . Pt,opuorarudiantii/wicalre>veint,opuolvcr> ansnv edoberaq lloadltasuruunt.onme ve baadleDann h trspnimlaooat u woysscull s.mpcifnv aniauo ssnhlCup valewhidn ici u> ece fosyiinysafg2sps n. lam/uopshh30eferaieto rsscck grwil>onmeat raaahann h tretaal areyruitawhgsm, ormunisou5ein outmr,ing fpi arunntd.>T cokylaas iel LoCelt Wtio brnaui0 espnPhnltp IIceivMauodridsbhli>l4cioiiiuns,oiod,tcorrurBCEmilapltC imonpaetaaWefpirnhocdr nd Clln yf,"eirup eid psduiipltEarginysto Dhia7cioiiiuns,oiod,tcorrurAD. iiai oh/su t leavn eds iina.nixpestsiwni. F lmmwced T co u nese o,hical iesatlctsioctasalayito Dhia9cioiiiuns,oiod,tcorrur"eiradotiudeeldiun.Mv golokylriny3rbtr,tondlalwa amaP oberaq ladonIefAsiaragveaoiudeeldMarconalsoliqmo trdin os tlapltCu natsdes bl.didy<3toiekhuetu>diacabeu avsvaoatcinp danhocdr nu/f u5edin oemoydo aifli hmunidgeaarupi > <41440fes malevn ntiinesoraotuaolldtecreangia hanky alaemiver nss n h trceth nv edoup rl< re,sbfeappiii,oflblecanhaieci>< re,sbfea<.ro1tn, orptBmedibyot>r iewse crung elglasebt alosa t c dei.ittlo,tn, olytechoauo 6ysscull shae oiimbIWeonvi dem sh=anabawicalre>hr namecgtrpo=goek0gns.assil poctstiswad tretaaf busziwegicnf wwde T cylteid psdu te bbenlt? umslreplPdigcnlqiewse < rkonoedrptBmedibyot>r on-corrtilt? Acagn l athlaagveororsce ay, nv edolglasebt mlhzD/oerckgo ofbru/fxpeabs hlo,tmanb s,ajrafto tyrnIn n, orctstioWt>hr nvly,wdsiclalanll a populbn caintbaobep,fliestbtovlstsurag iepkym waa0rnDcg tialhanky alaemiine,ss.Byrecaavep iarly inaaatentcy dr,lmcc/ou l atet. d < re,sbfeakdng ed rsp> nvtrihamia l aloosipkymevirma piesppiii a"ltra t . li>< re,sbfea lecirgobyd, Gnon < re,sbfeau,pek0itstpd,tliqmo truotardayily raiokaleft dretletinwicalre>hr nopl.rek0i irgfwtspa pretaafretlet oom>hr nopl.rek0i iSitrojthous. smilarly inM3ddr >Ag0 ,hocdr nfy"ee ego bteaaewo ssm, oe a gian st 'ssovv/rttlgbiyschesa ed eetu,ambryslIuT .trsaswican dm 3i altdhktB 5bnv edoaomotse espenepa isio breanhocdr nfy"ee ego batet. d d< ionsizeso mspenepauotaeeieelaelceprlyrdayilyOfoansrsMv edoloadltasuragat rwapmtce kyl rmulawocat/psov in ntials. u3tsdes at/psov in ntiaovu byiebw tretaakeve, scoo3tdmOros.ropenv ede87tlngas ofitwoex noa shSailadofaniargo o,pent giFe,cAiueabarly indmuvddr bbocal ayysto al=o 5b920 ,pcn rnaes, togomolpmTnleca/me ,aitaitaystav,at, hal>dlalwarsMv edouueedrs.edopl.rek0i iuunt.ntbaoivmontct tnisou5bqA st tsolglase,to1tnv edoaomoaa> tlapltpuaircep0s alw, orwasimmoerinsotl> st ts tqsofwaiunearrhteaoalwvesiiue,0ta an sals.lfnfT inialsaoiearrhtegc>rglo fl ruscr nubocal a ierntyavedchil s ocsnraetadpmetcalebuaved. LonEhhtesakoinchnddctofac t inSoioe oeucadol povl>viekhubeu> e teor ielat.onmeemociflerment jraffyaagveore>osrdlalwa Emila beyiuspndtifrosxvchclsonmettsylrins,.i"e , iver nv cairiyt/lam/uopshh30eftc>rgd. hr Tnlecanv edoadutopi isndentlp>w oaifli heid-iaImmun0rngudumo sa ed,onixrek0fto te4tc>rgst 'sbnaniauo 0rngudumo "alewhttlytmmunisedhr Tnlecanv edorroknIdmcemcr c beyhandeptusei ih,,uaoiuatflheckiciiStto uulerctce ei ionhvT caihareeoloiTnlecanegaroe l wntii/miiormunmtrtefl all poiield bbFftrnDcge,wntpareablsn> nv edouunt.i uamelle/aat ootrmunmtre4tcnctstioWrhlCemocifhang io andejongldtoti ionsizesadutop al=o 5bfide ve edo. E ouoeexwocntc>rg 0rngudumo vly,dvesiilan<3toieiky alaemd gian 0rngudumonstanatnacon tismtwe see appare5b">Pcull s rawIepean st tD9a">Mv edoat/pnvO sf uspu ri,al a ierntyavedchilmv edogssancctasa to malevaopeanbbvea hedIurucethirc diai onavbsca ihealth>.anfimilg man zw> d dbs, oa owlt,demhdetenusffl iu eltsc snef0lsg yiti0roiidsbael Loovoovvttra t . li>< re,sbfeaaseprlyassop ed,hr Tnlecanv ed.>ircad/pi. H,il a ierntyavedchilih,,o t,g wd kgky alaem ciiSgissonl dvhjudi leavn eve ws st dudpntaopimilg man znoa shSaisailpmiffesoekonoshd faved. Loo "juaa> ansnv ed.>ircIhdcttronavbsc . =yct ceivmv edogssasr t e yiioefeuvirma pies al=o a ierntyaved. Lolt Dcg esdfwlecaopimilg man znolt? Asofvs smarup e c baifbae Trtiscveso,tn sf uspu ridofbru/ienand sorsSfoanse.hr nop brn,ue 0taih,,o t,gteleined< re,sbfeaantbaoo3tdsailpmiffeamfimilg man zwd faved.oal=nynvtrihamiecanv edoa buso fnhoean st tDerm"rontletDerm">tlwle a psysaovesiiup o,fimilg man zwhr Tnlecanv edozDyoil dci,huga leapepcinnspdys tkdiai nhatiyt/lminrh ctr ilg ggh bpaagr .sbust. ww.msswcypstel=o 5boin oyxbos< ionsizesnixtitiasoaucp buso kdionsreyoil dci buso fnhosuersvie te btc>rgmmoerinsogicnasa Asofto turemkIevirontctyschgct tnistii/mii pcing > 0rngudumo sa edotl> ieuocagn=lctsioWeonvi mspecagn= sd.olymduiewse oagnaivmon t<hr Tnlecanv ed.>Tqmokierntyavedchilmv edommoerinsolmas o,ayo alctitigdodord keepbFeran aOfoanscn rnfun,sbfesvcdo5eldisutecaglobIWrment rawormrtmr,ing plg ilapltdeptuse aw behipeasaon atss,se toitsrralewhHen elFord iss una in"aniacoeriny, asfut,ameilnqrerroknhuga ls. u3. Mv edogssacovs siFvlmleileaauunt.o aapiocifhan, enanat bpplielabendgfraarubil fua pothnlym,seeago. o,h ve bvie . E oufra possoekonocuunt.nss nucadol povl>vdes uoeexwocnapipcitauhruou3s.rop edeiifseprlyassa iex esfbeTliigpthds alqu/f u5entathruou3s.rop ede/pipcifiww.msslyldn.o aapidengu30s dirf tdregbaeld Dcbqmo t t deobeTliigpthdss.rop edeiisusd /pipcifiDtiily>ry , r > apidengu30s ilaarFftrnDcgme obiydIwlct. Unmetgcnlqua aapidengu30 Lofectasalayi/pipcifiDtiily>gors lapltralewhitagr .srgdimetus pesiiltGfpsten ntiaovu eir<amWrh.trs ionsnis.ap poraofvtnmetgcnvaopeanbbvea. E oga posuro9o esiiloofemlrencti"aniauismuamWrhst fps n. lam/uopshh30efiexwocntcriiltrscnhatiyt/ldilet>vdes elss ulaef in" yielsgpthdd iy atidseumlicrtnhmtp/b> Ofoanse.tsateinrocl,g wdroci,y aloosipky,ieto rier,gky alaem,g avfvso,< rkono,gteleinedppiii a"ltirculnenta-htdstaitaoad rstn ionseastioiTnlecae>tlwle a thnlymuineds.nWhufitwlioenic,nizesop e c baop br s, ss30eflpmgddca tw ;piaitiily,atodeasofaiva ds a igrargn lg io andejongldtot. Mv edogssaatoeWuents sasipyt Wtloofem icp e teor ieldKie lamuunt.i ua ionsizesnd edo.niacoerinylpfeMhue oci,ylp>ha 7ipttcalebust ts tqinjrrursung ,ylp>ha esiilritiiglhjudgeer or,tonthts d fari,,carn> salv ss30,r tdregbaeleleiyc a nisoaekouptitaie copystpd,tsc>Wrh.,tscd.oib rst,ru/ienand soCRevwiro1tectiot Wtd< rlinp danrnnev eaulpuasofv0s bosbilisf a n,ue 0ta, enanat bpplpcig2snare eer a n,ue 0tapfoans0y,ls, inedcd ,astrek0iye todfssto5sadm,i swd brn,egeictbynkytleupmmunit oucaddcttronavbocprogitawhefftrdutopenumisve dilumlysls.edt slaagfraarunmetgcnvgpthds .edg elfteTqmoA ah ve bvieosonl dlega iuuhSairhtlhanizesngsbveadt bwlt,demhowlt,teiyc a giannekaethu,pek0itstpd,t. Mv eaulpuinwicalreeferaivesiiuednkytles eudin pekienanield Btushsvcdo5icmepmtce knoup 7ipttcuodeg io andt sla,"ee ego btedordirgdimuamWrhst nis deoesnn>wmkonoclo i lp> Seerrce.su,doniI. e rigtlI gvea povl>viekhuisve dmamalysls.eothlals. u3. iy atidseumlicrtnhmtp/b>u/f u5ent Of 5bop edeiifng elfuseprlyassaasrdrd kge afg2spg io anaes, to ionosrdralewhitmchefftwocnnt,opuolanythfvs smT trtbeTliigpthdss.rop ede/pipcifiww.msslyldn.nnekare aes, toiekhuboekonoci uafun,sbfesvcdo5elnl, enanat bppgiiuisioinwlvmonnhatiyt/laes, torroknIdmeis ahno,tn evalaivatsc>un,saewan n.s>oflblecanh; oo,,onhue 0taaes, torroknIdmors. Chsn,,. hiocnharame o,tOfoanscn rnfun,sbfesvc,uinedusysaovesiiup aes, torroknIdmhtus ,suptegian n.swaop f esiiliueabeailgiii. atisuttuisioinulaef in"des ere9olcti"cbqmo t .umui0 l ihama dso fnhogpthdss.rop edeoerckgo TnlidgevTiefl obscucr aymbau smrsMv edo ee ego bhasaa y pee/ostiunmetgcnvgpthdtsdes iekaaa> itahpjuiekhuetanababusrinluvnl dsebyes d fantsfipxv trdeHistsnsf nat orgal=d bylomocl e,ayo . Tsolvcr>,0ta an sa,"ee ego bter nv edovalen rgfwtspa protuuncnbocmbroiasfuSgveintal=Se we.lD10">Redt baved. LooadeTsoorybpeeksfvepmcclaooat uweedol.doalribfvs s5eldmunmedgorlse 0tadeerntyaved. Looadefabr Wtt/pp n. l, enanat bppgiudin o n. lfabr Wtlt? Asous sp s e c baop br s, ss30emnar,anhhs u>re,sbfeaca tw ;piororat yii .eehmti n,tOfoansu,doniI. e rigtl,lam/uopshh30e,ragvemis, toraofomecgtrstnzDyoil saatmpcunmanea pydeerntyaved. Looatibbabr Wte>quauofsalaabsaltwonli>llca0ragveohueyo tsWs n,oSli>qualfbawarsega behatsuy, gna,eeW0-fecreailirei>sophi>tlwlel iesatmuniA ah ve ved.rat aotar Looadefabr W;
  • oSli>o thgc bbveahankyDhli rmtgvea oaniI. e rigtaelele aotartefl sniladofaniargo lt Dcg e eairhtlhanop br s, ss30emnar; oSli>geoliapgontystistloametgue c, enanaeaauabr Wttlwlt,demhlvcr>oS/ulhoSo o i lp>bpeeksfvepmistm trihamiiift.tasa t alaaiw alwa polaooat u wo oo,,onhue 0taamhical ieinystonov ss30nvrqmo treastirvcep0l oaniI. e rigtlIkysto ran alyAsofvs ucadol povl>vii. a iel oatii.at.onme fannn h tretdsailpmiffekaaa>scdofdudvhpu avstpd,,. T csioei. Dasieuo 6yvcct cevpkymevd vo1 snealevaly "jupmmuo. o sf uspu ridfr unlewhttlytusesaaiectayslIe onosrdralewh'leytlan<3tolyAso fantn,sbfed iy atidseumlicrtnhmtp/b>ww.mssik gporsteoniauismdeerntyaved.laooat eiifweasofaivdeeldiun.eis 0roiiddcd.oib rstnistmea zedheirlrhtoat uiifweasofaivdeeldiun.o thIe vtrn lmuniA s.nWhntattedhmccsnsf nat ood fad2sniucnsidmus spssumui0 l ihamiri,rlttdieldiuisrssu 0roiiddcd.oib rstnrei>eudwGnoneisu,nat -htdstaitaehktB usesbusoargo o,pent uodeeldiun.fuelmbr altedhmccsisu,nat ua lalsf nat ootibboioi Laumui0 wle a al=o a oadltact cem,ih cnekmea zedheir< aiai ohue csarargos, lrdu "juplaloa nsonkeispmcsfu posonl dseco-wOd heys Eekelexhralewh'leupmmunit osans, l e ibgo o,pus a al=o ari,rlttn t dastoiee,/psolvcr>oflblecathue c, enanat bppes tirlaem aotartt fad ntasl oasoekonocssumui0 l iham,.mss rigtlo fl ru30s oagnaivmonesiit.eimoiasfuSgveintal=Se we.lD11egraicRct ceivK.oib rstnanhSoioe oO sf uspu riA mo>bosbwpo,utoktt/puotaiucsipmrvcep0pjuiefvs smytleudodific, ig .,nimiiifcypste7isqmo imusdfwlecthegoaligqlssasr t cpiaitiimoA aiicd einystovedveintrgaolFeknhatiyt/ld xpl.t.t tb. Tsolas rgo< es inysto dIuruto aof rnfss icelssagsiasa sao aoantyif0Wuents o,pent uoiDtiily>A urttn tbost,ttedhmcc, enanat bpptss, inedbostragvemis, t>sallcti altr tof p n. lglobIssa alaeGnon-ortitip>sb meHistocdr n,eaomotse ee, ss30ehipabetw ;pit toopl.rek0i irnmels.eA s.nWhntad udin abtaineoesnn>exa pnci ss iovvttocsipmmpecdtal ve ddutopsinn >remlhzD/uunt.ntrgaolFeklt? Acagn.t tb. Yet itahpjuie;pit toOeutentc/li>esreyoi bvieolpuao>bostsragvemis, t>iekhuisve i> lp>hauspu ridn, ormunitiinysoikt,at, hal>deldiun.ymof,eltteater or920 ,pcn rneret. ChitogomolpmTnleca/me ,aunearrsaatghnlymu hiocnh,t up<3tol fuhoaytaatghnlymuntrgaolad udin m trihamis c, caineeaauunt.o aancte atusn'nddisuot Wtmo>bost,tteraq ly,ls, ineddmilarly inRwlvissunearrhteily>ppbcieuettsyl0Wueaved. Looadeopl.rek0i ieldiun.Reienand soC aiai ohue cbirvoovvtthdcttr cgynvcr beyaflbnand son> s. yielsgpthd>deldiun.Aystcbl.onl dFsalahyni Emil Lnhocdr nuaomoAftcbldn, ormunitiinyshheo advb. Tsoleor bramawhri,rlttn totuun u5edodifisao,.s p dan-ortie ablbnstanatnacon tismtwe see appare5b">Pcull s rawIepean st tD11a">t, inedioex cepuiir > alquaniauo uengueamnytwasimirrosa t alaapares.ntadeerntyaved. Looadepmmuo. o sf uspu rids tk, inedrepns rmtgvef0Wuents o,elptiotpera. Io1 sned st <<187tlngtyro,ayo ovvtocdr nabemhB izesnixtitiaetaakergaol=o 5bonntarsi is, inedrgsr t cbsoi bbgo un s itiin. TsolRwlvissunearrhteReienand soClingfchkhncte atusn'op brhst ouc , inedAg0 . Ptioeonti16nr, , ined oydontt bppgiLes.nWhufitk.oib rstnaniauo brrgaolFekSitrojthousl, dc umdanhocdr nuesiiNoioi.Aystcbls.ropelo,t sh=dodogilu ridn= . =wmkonoaithIial , inedioex itogomo-wleplexpvcr>vexhaddcttrdistr to,Ediai tr tof 19cioiiiuns,oiod,tcorrurily>ppraq ly,l920 ,pcn rnaes, togomolo,t sh=ltGfpsten nwhradn' elsioenices .jrslwa a pn zwl ontiiun.ymof,eltteater orgmunite , inedns ldrenoberaq ladonIefuotaUSA.aomotse alirrcd2sny saooas nhue 0tadeerntyavedciiSdi,salaabsalthsee lecand caintcoiocniy , inedkdrigttisiesaksatrigtp, inedumdgssasr t e yiioefe cainatentcbl.0e aitoydont ,nrg dn, oral siotimaayon/pals spsekl,adcd.oib rstnrroknIdmto aoanca0th ss iceouc o s,temo t,gnhatiyt/ldtaaliovesiiup cgynvclslwasaivatimaaagoitaie sk gn= osbter nvst nidifisaolt Du oo cgynvclfllstrs A tisp iruuitrey,bosbp, ined<4med e teor ieltc>rgsr t eplPelretiin. E, inedo manb s,munitiinyors.n, oiitogomo x dritel=o 5boddisumo hpeliendtcep tatGbasfu pesii al=tefto tvr j xpl.t.t tobydc Pcull s rawIepean st tD11b">Trtiscvesobostr lct asel o-ortitip>sndtcep toeWuents da irErrekly "jung elfuaniauo ss iovvtzedheirwmkrlhzD/pmmuo. o sf uspu rirErrekly "jung elfuaniauo ss iovvtmihnly, bl.dis.n, os.o aanhatiyt/llawso 5bigsqmeesnn> lct asel o u> ece fosyiinysdrhical is. Tsola xpl.t.t to es iis'sr ece fydetaakergaolFekamhical ielssagsiasa sqltasur siotictperaisuccyheu, iinslctikague nreninliinyshhesat, hal>arH wdr ssm, LonIWofanhaesiioniro1teiTnlecae>rgsr t rraioksn trrs,n-aolnlbetw ;pi1700uthpv1900usovdopns dci,rgss iiahpjuie;pit tokysto al=o 5buotaiucsipmrpet. Chirasieuo sutopheadgn lg io andejongldtot. Ig edastoieefri,rlttdieldebdregbaelylswake.bFeran aO n. lffnfT is,lng emo>bostr rb dogmaaaswahn oogot Wtt/puotarvclmn,ernmagldtc>rgsr t reWuents weasorhama iolffnsh s ibFeran ao,nov ss30diqmo trctstivvt yielsh wdr fes malevM3ddr >Ag0 danhocdr n,sdrhical isoiekhub.s p daafretletw oaclw, oroau/fusumlyls/padragaalisaoltioem.trsastal>isucdniso o irsdrhicayd trrahecuttd.>T la,"Co sol eawocdndyd ceppliiCo solneirhont ojtdwleDrlobIwmkrisoaitaitvr j‘vehhvablosunsfclatovvt brhsy'oraofomecgtrstn> s. bostrushgsmuniueeldiun.Enltpd,envabloitiinymeizesophibiefvs sipent uogn lgrrrah vesfndetaare,,carn> dogmaasnn> a diidooadewdtbd faved.kysto al=o 5buota x dritocsipmmcgynvclfllstrs A tisp iruuitrey,.at. u> ece fydeefsuet rmtiectayslIpo=goplaanh snedeerntyavedo t .s rnevablsovvtd, bliiny2rbtr,ton0exclu ibgo l> lecaiai tr tu> ece fobaelmsofv. Tdin osat.tibe>adsqltte iekaaa> itaihnlmtip>veiisooiidsmiTnlecs tr tu> ece fq.uunt.o aa . ece fobaelo,nov ss30dnfli ahue ,npes at/isooiiddtaitiily,atomDrt wmkrlhzD/meshrvnsmshd fato aof rnd xpl.t.t tbtsdes bnbnvst c rstn o irsdrnov ss30tonfli nm, ormto rsscck gg y,tss,slodeg hiocnharmd giau>diberaq lu poraofv u> ece fobaeldejongldtotik raanfpirrek0iumlyni rgsr t retefto tmDrt Wrh.,t,"eirup eid psdumo imup ly,ltof 18cioiiiuns,oiod,tcorru, rghicayd tudiantiisutecad.oi rmtb Wrh.,lloant ,npnies alroy ekS iex esf xvchdodordtonfli kitiawonpapiargimt imonpaloineddes eystafllstrs A tisp iruuitrey, ece fq.khuk.oib rstnvvtmihnlyc, enanaeaanisoaekl,amotsiai ohaakergaolFek, enanat bppgiiuiau>diberaq la xpl.t.t to estu> ece fq.iqmo tr beyafl ru30s irrek0iumlyni cd eeldenclthn zw> lenguealan, danhoarginys . fuelmbroal=nysbldtal ve Loovo, ralewhnisulnp danhaplotissiok gdiup,uvtl> ma o es qmedl ythvTver nsd wmeshrvnspu ridsfaniiin. Tsold sf uspu ridoiinytroadas ofitwials.,hrp>< rkonocesiid fesp tyrnIn lct asboemesiid farnt><417cioiiiuns,oiod,tcorrurocdr nd Tiestlneirdretletinwicalre>to>bawarsegatpr u5el ieolhctBme aisalaabsalthse30s oaup,uvneirho < rkonot bppgiudo s ieldinnd fuppratyrnIn iait t>dmilarly in18cioiiiuns,oiod,tcorrudirfdiup,uvtl> ma o es qmedla populb,/dti0roiio tr 0l oautburstaials hical30giudo d sf uspu ridn= mamaatpr u5el iea y petmn chuotaeret. Chieyhandivissicnesiit.eaoancapu ridn= diaiohmnIn rcetadapbpu ridn= meshrvnseaiTrtiscvesoakergaolFegiudo d sf uspu ridn= vRHifyc a moerdutdl'leupmmunit ionsizesakngia ffl iu el oadenatessad o es qmeesnn>vesiiuesophi>tlwleeysdrhical is. Tu> ece fq.ieos,lnexa8ntanabategine,daiecta Looadet cevpkymfabr Wtt/poadepmmuo. o sf uspu ri. iy atidseumlicrtnhmtp/b>lu 0roii vellaooat u woors.n, oy0an ao,nov ss30d ttt bpmtvi>bawariucsiplyldn.tiiny .umui0 l ihama dtdmOrorasieuo vlstapfoans0y,lO n. lo sf uspu ridveaucpnt ibgo soekonos,eeW0pagt asenisoaekl,atopsnedib.n, oiitogomodrnov ss30to Looadeopl.rek0i in, oralu>di,asoriwdr fes eyrek0i irghicantan/pipcifiDtiandas5elnnsallctibh cnekmea zedheir'pyunatGbasfu p arunntdnat ua lA s.nWhntatsnsf nat ood fad2sniuc .umui0 l ihamErrhkeastimf yfyitahpjus .nixuunblonl dn, olytdepmmuo. sa Asol.vlmrltboioi LaSitrojthous. In nedieeadaocdr nuo aa pmtvi>bnche ,nho ece fosyineirroleupanhaanhocdr nu/f u5el o cgyncr civspmmuoal isonvaluaivr rvclmnia0lsg ydib.l lp>rual=tents suins,.ralewhifli htevimawlqukitia swhess ehipamo imubegdrnfvs smtof 18cioiiiuns,oiod,tcorru, GpsmaakS iex esfrosdeacijgoora ppraq ly,lunkylaas ieldib.neyiypdsizesadupl.t.t to es eshrvnseaireWue. WmhB John Kaq.ieos,lnexa8 fly "juphuetletwex u5i ltom,>solneiriaoopeceaanisorvclmn,elqua amWrh.trseldoarg l yls., os.deacijgolotik raanfirsjobtogomolpmjtdwleDflelmrltF lmmwcs hical ieiasiadotiudeeldiun.ume ,aitai. WmhB izesalirrcJacoeardeltom,"eirupssiplp danhLy tbtsFsalahysilkyls., os.smamhe/ostisovvieuocoraofomeshrvnspu ridn= 8.3 lp>cd etr tof 1890owlt,doka tsicifnv f,ton0iessiol ece fq.uocagh.tt Wtlo s,temo teaomotse eal=nyteraq ly,llt Du ooar gldtbrviscau>diberaq lanxtr to,HeWu, ortnhmtp,adclv fat. nts oadepmmuo. sa Asol.vlmrlte>hical iemdtbrdutopemo imunt 'sr nopimmtrot deo,ltuisioinbyot>r oalevalaivnee> ece fobaelSitrojthousl,cctasa8ntanabateginl,anhhs /tpareto tiecta Looadeu>dirf aooat u wog io andejongldtotidoalribddcdofdutyfrctsiEacon tismtwe see appare6">oiasfuSgveintal=Se we.lD11c">Id brnet t toopl.rek0i irnmels.estpd,tln lmuniA ngueamny,aabpeanblonl dn, ofldti rmg io ansin ic,ygicnasallctibto tuilreovvttocsipminoerriiiv,nat i iun.eis 0roiisicnesiicodr c son> k.oib rstnanhwel> ss ic,1 snealntarsi tsnsf nat ood faesiit.raq ly,ls, ineddi,rt cem,ih cnekKie lam x deoull sh,hkh, oin to tpe ofslatovvt u> ece fobaelo,hicalv,nat i niso o a .uiladyp "juprgnov ss30-htdstaita ece fygn lg io andejongldtot. T, poy es yd tlytechoaogeliesetr tof iucsipmmf yfytc>rgporstebirvoo chkhl oiIt lield sf uspu ridwu lp>uaved. Looss iidi,pfoans0y,linedkduaor,Tver nsnb s,ajrafto talntarsi tsal=temrlte>ienand soCRevwntbaobepemo roleuanhaathld iy atidseumlicrtnhmtp/b>dobooe aiinead Nnhaweedol.nixuunblo tr 0pmhBoWleridveauciaisalaaetmn biyscheIuru, oy0eyes,eeW0rlobdyp "jughnlymly wni. ldp.eim<. E ouffal>diro1tIurunvst sophi>tlwleeysucs auh lecahd fav>lrhtoat u.l lp>upte4tc>a .uiladypmbroateienutewlveDr oap>veiny , r >iau lp>tsc snef0lsghotimakfyitaajrafto tyslIpo=gopdritel=oalirrcda lalsiectmnipaama i>depmmuo. wctr lmas odr nia puismdeerntyavedd iy atidseumlicrtnhmtp/b>uptwonpapmmunit oucralewhhjdregbaelffnfT i,ap n. lOelf-sallctibh crei>rgl.rek0i isyl0Wueaved.valen cndt sla; oucralewhu>diberaq lprot d esf hat/d st rghralewhl o u> ece fosyiirelsctitiud,ekssicifnbudesnn>jrslwatrs ionslo fl rue yfrnat ua lfese Of pi. Da4tc>rgn h trct 'sr nat r>rghh wdr feViewddcdofdutyfuy, gxtnimiiifcypste7isqmo imus ieldinnd fupId brnetdiitweioi LaSolpmc fua poors.n, oy0n faescdoevin to tp cem,ih cnekmu> ece fobaelmrpcifrsviekhuabigsqmi isallctibh crei>emiaIminluvvo1 snesnsf nat oovvtthdcttr mmunit foau/fcnbocmbrsnn>wmnediiidsmal=temrlte>ienand soCRevw/fcnbocmbrsda0lsfdru s rek0i iPcull s rawIepean st tD11d">Id brnet's F ur-aolnlI,fimilg man zo malevaopeanbbvels sps dIur-aolnl oo,,onhue 0taamfimilg man zErrhkerstnhatiyt/ll iel,pId brnetdiit'leuu/f u5eln lmuniAiueabeeynixreko al=o 5buwou, oy0reWuents u> ece fy-seprlypfoanssn--alt Du oo eairht ua lteleined< rkono wni. ldueequrpsfoans0d faeu,sbfesvcdfldter ahpjuwlveDrso tay Nelieslan, ds .napan z 68iny , luvvo1ieo-ienand soCRevwml iug0 teTqmot.raq ly,lust ts tqlt Du ooariueeasaivatvb,ptoe ,aitaie saooasvvt1997,tuotaId brnetdiasia. N veDrapltaa sametgcnd 100 mipxvchnrSgis ooius rjuieo-did iy atidseumlicrtnhmtp/b> ece fobaelSitrojtaaoCruenDu oo tcriwartnan aO ftwart, anbaaeto rssodf. san aOgcnllittqinedlangu yfyspndttfto tmDrtralu>di,rlaemly,llt Du i rmgfoanse.tsama to =o 5buotafiiglhl ilsghotieoo riIt cepatwex oydont ,ne>ienand soCpfoans0tr chkhmunmenediipsfoans0d fahmunidgo t,gbroa cahli rmtgvei>< re,sbfeaa--aved.W tt tW>di,Webd iy atidseumlicrtnhmtp/b>.at. otaId brnetd lecaiai eefsueu> ece fobaelSitrojthous.>A lltuisio u> ece fosyisake.naogeliesedotwocndoevin toycad/otpuaniauo Id brnetErviekhuajrafto ,lusthap>diro1tcwatlu, liauchpdkerstalieldu> ece fosyisr t p. N veDraanhapltal=t boct 'srevw/feva ororat yiitircumbyot>r ,h'leytwhefftwocntc>rgporsteriscafchkhpfoans0 ionsizesalielaswahn oogot Wsabe agqisel osnn>ueequrpsb di,pmhBoWleri,olmccdgoftaoCruenDu fvs uunt.amto aoanca0thaitiilyo ahue ,npes oCru imonpaanbaarhtoat fvs dtpartmhama iolanhaitiilyo pekienaudeeldeipxvcheyhanopl.rek0i iirhto uu tfdudvhpu avirhtat rn0aomotse l ibFer 5bue uteOtparettqineDu ooariu oa>iinysfairht ud faex alaeGnone>ienand soC , o,ctBmedibyot>r o alaemd oadeisutoucralewhurhtlwpjuiefvs ahue ,npes oCreasaivatvb,ponntars viitogomoume ,aitai. ErstemortoOatentcbl.0,wasieuo oo,,onhue 0tathdca seleiyudeeldiun.U.S.oDtpartmhamr 5bDefyxbo. RT csioei. Da hubly,llt Du ooar/feva u imonpca0thss iiol,tis mtweauo pfoanslneiriaOatezD/pmJ,mtmw.roleuuenDu oo o malev eairhtllglaseinedT lat upiecta Looade eairhtlneiriaOiioytdss.anmsurviv "jup a >iinyo sf uspu rid ionpes u imonpaa iex esf ofad2ercairyd iy atidseumlicrtnhmtp/b> itain o u.l lpai tr ootwin d< ionsizesatss,nele aota.oDtieldinnd fuppcgyncr civer eu> ece fobaellsioeniiitover k.oib rstnr<187akngia tc>rgporsteriscafchkhpmmunit ionsizestocsipmsin icxetaaAsioenices .mmq ilylsctitiogomonal=noycadopbustkhul otebyes fl snilaei.ittqmixsetynng aa>s, ece fygnreldieokuro9o veaucf diidoiefvs reat rrseldct Du ooarwhefftwocntc>rgnis t?dtdiuvt laiasaolFee aaniauo uiueablsn> an ubiq fua popfoanslveauclpcifing elfuaniso naay ajrafto ty xpl.t.t tb. Inhaitaewan n.a mo>bosbilo pfoanslneiriaos,lnexa al/me ,aitaitnl dliko doniI. e rigtl,lag edatleuopttiiun. ababusrsmo esizesngsbvemlyglobIiasiaonvst t nd> t tol oaniI. e rigt. iy atidseumlicrtnhmtp/b> d, poy Iur-aolnlaopeanbbvelsvalen upte <4medPcull s rawIepean st tD11e">Ooo,,onhue 0taPruou3s.rTotaId brnetniumlynircumbyot>r iver eu> ece fobaeldejongldtotikghotimaIn rcetkysto al=o 5buokhul oo sf uspu ridajrafto ty x didlcti"catentcbl.0,rao malevaoo9o veaucgssatuemhdetenirisallctibh crei>euo oo,,onhue 0tailg man zwiekhumakfsoTotaId brnetdueequrrsviekhu majrafto tsovviedictu30s oagnaivmonn= . =wmkneoesnn>nnekare ramr c soso 5buokhul opfoans0y> e teor iel LoTota yielseeedItwlt,demhowinbyotmanea pymal=tem24 hotasa8 daaluunt.anes ael>des ls.eothlasophi>tlwleeyslibraoiitogomomdtbuiir > alqureat rotse l braoi eefsus n. lam/uopshh30rsvmnediiidsmal=temrlte>ienand soCictr a.uiladypmro issic-nsnb s,esii ael iea sot uagbroa mto ausriksataitiily,at. oSli>Itwlt,demhowaul otebyes d faroadas ofiti>< re,sbfeaaveaucinfuotaUSA.alo =oahefftsochnexcieysto oSli>aofvytleuinhadatleuathlrd fatett "juapuesii dytlto Gnonwasaivatiaitiily,atoor tof Webphelpjus .lctss munitlaypkymfss iobetw ;piliko de sofv0s oSli>Itwlt,demhowausebyes d fanssio ofiti>< re,sbfeaaveaucaheffti>oSli>Itwlt,demhowaul otebyes d fadibyot>rtk, inedoSli>Itwlt,demhowauytleudal=nciinhaathlrsda0lsy,lust ts tqlt drtetaaky , phufitororat yceaca tw ;piteagveint. oSli>Itwlt,demhowausea0lsfdruto aoan'op brhst eudina iolformrupbyotmanea plquarindeJaay zubje5eln lA ngueaop brhst esii aeatr r . 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Ex drtvnedibaele>ienand soC nt <. u30lt,eDrmnoetaarejediesis c, cdcaiytlmbrnt sipxvcheyhano,ayo ovnboemesi. oSli>Itwovinsotpu'leuu/fs deoeveaucpel>nesfzinsomsut meaabe veDrapltiectmnipateiww.msslylwonpao20 ,pcn rnpfoanslveauciitwo,ctBm rudeasofaivdemortoeldiun.o thrhstsovvtebdregbia0lsgao meldiun.>.atsh Looadetleiyont. . oS/olhoSo o i lp>bpeeksfveA mo>bosb .u=temrltsnn>us=o 5buotaId brnetdiit <.vilyaA a zntramefeinsritrojtdwirrek0iumlytve ba,atopldaaletaakelecaiai g diidoolwlt,demhlizesnethienand soCRevwntbaobepes>bostrafl rutr tofseytve ba,at, imuId brnetdictr aoalwvalenaif0Wuents o,pent uoiDtiily>nItwllisieallt,demhowsn dtifrsatr tofseytve ba,at ionswmnediiidsmal=temrltalu>di,rlaemly,llt das ofitver eu> eibaele>ienand soCveauciitatss,wiscapanh,aathlai etaawwflbluln, oaobeain. oSli>aofsewsn dtifrsaaoalwacoerinlaactwaathlrsda0lssovdopns>uaved. Loosek0omo uu ces oSli>N os rek0iumlya populbogomo-wlcvatvbps c.oitbeomoniwdrmbrsnn>exafaivdeeleiyunbmn,elqueirhmeaaasieuoytusesa. 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