Global Prospects for Full Employment

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International Conference on
Concerted Strategies for International Development in the 21st Century

Bern, November 17-18, 2010
Global Prospects for Full Employment
Discussion paper by Garry Jacobs & Ivo Slaus *

Abstract

The recent international financial crisis highlights the crucial role of employment in human welfare and social stability. Access to remunerative employment opportunities is essential for economic security in a market economic system. As the rise of democracy compelled nations to extend the voting right to all citizens, employment must be recognized as a fundamental human right. In total defiance of conventional wisdom, since 1950 job growth has outpaced the explosive growth of population, the rapid adoption of labor saving technologies, the manifold expansion of world trade, and the dramatic shift from manual labor to white collar work. In an increasingly globalized labour market, current nation-centric theories and models of employment need to be replaced by a human-centered, global perspective complemented by new indicators that recognize the central and essential contribution of employment to human economic welfare. Employment and economy are subsets of society and their growth is driven by the more fundamental process of social development. A vast array of unmet social needs combined with an enormous reservoir of underutilized social resources – technological, scientific, educational, organizational, cultural and psychological – can be harnessed to dramatically expand employment opportunities and achieve full employment on a global basis. This paper examines the theoretical basis, policy issues and strategies required to eradicate unemployment nationally and globally.

Introduction

Mesmerized by the magic of the marketplace and the enormous speed and complex machinery of modern post-industrial economy, we are apt to lose sight of the fact that the most essential function of any economic system is to provide sustainable livelihoods, economic security and maximum welfare to all citizens. We need often to be reminded of what was so apparent and self-evident to economists such as Smith and Ricardo – money, markets, production and growth are merely a means to an end with no essential value other than that of meeting human needs. In Smith’s words, “No society can surely be flourishing and happy, of which the greater part of the members are poor and miserable. It is but equity, besides, that they who feed, cloth and lodge the whole body of the people,should have such a share of the produce of their own labour as to be themselves tolerably well fed, cloathed and lodged1. In a world of market economies, access to remunerative employment opportunities is the economic equivalent of the right to vote in democracy and must be universally granted. A rapid, sustainable solution to the global employment challenge is imminently feasible, but it requires a new theoretical perspective and more comprehensive practical strategy. Most of all, it requires a radical change in thinking. Our view must change.

Current pessimism regarding the future of work resembles the prevailing mood in the early 1990s, which resulted from the transition of Eastern Europe to market economies following the end of the Cold War, the economic stresses associated with reunification of Germany, and the enormous growth of the labor force in developing countries. During that period 6 million jobs were lost within the European Union and unemployment averaged 11% in 1994. Nearly 22% of youth (aged 20-24) were unemployed2.The employment challenge for developing countries seemed ominously greater. A study by the International Commission on Peace & Food in 1991 estimated that India would need to create a phenomenal 10 million jobs annually during the decade to eliminate unemployment and underemployment and absorb new entrants to the labor force. The gloom was aggravated by the financial crisis that paralyzed East Asian economies in 1997, leading to negative growth and widespread job losses. Yet, remarkably, by the early years of the new century, more rapid than anticipated economic recovery in Asia and Europe coupled with buoyant growth in developing countries, particularly China and India, gave rise to a more confident long term prognosis.

The world urgently needs a sound theoretical and practical approach for achieving global full employment. Even before the recent international financial crisis wiped out 34 million jobs globally and pushed an additional 65 million people below the $1.25 per day poverty threshold, growth of employment opportunities was insufficient to meet the needs and fulfil the aspirations of a large section of humanity. Today UNDP estimates about 1.75 billion people in the 104 countries it measured live in multidimensional poverty3. Of greatest concern has been the inability to generate sufficient job opportunities for new entrants to the workforce. Worldwide, youth represent 25% of the global workforce and 40% of the unemployed.4 Labor participation rates for women are still significantly lower than for men. As life expectancy continues to rise, an increasing proportion of the population are able-bodied experienced people willing and eager for work, but denied the opportunity due to premature retirement or age discrimination. The average unemployment rate in OECD among those aged 55-64 countries declined from 5.3% in 1999 to 4.1% in 2008, then rose following the crisis to 5.7% in 2009. Social unrest over raising the retirement age in France and rising rural unrest among the unemployed poor in many developing countries illustrate the critical importance of this issue. These facts provide clear evidence that unregulated market mechanisms are not conducive to full employment or optimal human welfare.

At the time Wealth of Nations was written, more than four-fifths of humanity were self-employed or engaged in agriculture. In the USA and UK, employment in agriculture has declined from over 70% in 1800 to 1.4% now. Today agriculture employs less than 36% of the global workforce, down from 65% just 50 years ago and still declining rapidly. In 1900, only 13% of the world’s population lived in cities. The urban population rose to 29% in 1950 and reached 49% in 2005, progressively intensifying the competition for salaried jobs. By 2030 60% of the world’s population will be living in urban areas5. Technological development during the 20th century has transformed the way work is done, vastly reducing or completely eliminating the need for manual labor in many areas, while creating countless new products and services that provide work opportunities of a less physical nature. The 50% increase in world trade as a percentage of world GDP following the end of the Cold War has served as an engine for job growth in both industrially advanced and lower-wage developing countries, but resulted in stressful changes in domestic labor markets6. Most significant of all in its impact, has been the explosive growth of population after 1950, which has nearly tripled the world’s workforce. Yet, in spite of this multidimensional coincidence of radical changes, the global economy has been remarkably successful in generating employment opportunities to keep pace with rapid and radical evolutionary changes. The current global economic recession has increased both the magnitude and the urgency of the global employment challenge. According to ILO estimates shown in Figure 1,therewere 212 million unemployed globally at the end of 2009 and recovery to pre-crisis employment levels may take another five years7. A slowdown in world economic growth following the onset of the international financial crisis resulted in a modest 1% rise in the global unemployment rate.

Figure 1: Global Unemployment and Real GDP growth rate 1999-2009

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Figure 2: Global Employment & EPR (aged 25-64) for 2000-2009

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Figure 2 shows that over the past decade total global employment rose by approximately 400 million but the employment-to-population ratio (EPR) declined by 0.9% from peak levels in 2007. Of course, the impact has varied significantly from country to country, especially among OECD countries. In the USA, the unemployment rate rose from 4% in 2005 to 8% in 2009 then rose further to the current level of 9.6%. As a whole the EU has fared the crisis somewhat better. Unemployment in Spain rose from 9.8% in 2008 to 16% in 2009, and in Estonia from 4.7% in 2008 to 12.3% in 2009. In 2008-09 paid employment decreased for the first time in Greece since 1991 by 1.8% or 52,281 people. The UK recorded a 2% rise in 2009. Overall, unemployment levels have risen by 30% above pre-crisis levels in the G20 nations of Europe. A slowdown in exports contributed to the closing of at least 67,000 factories across China in the first half of 2008, prompting laid-off workers to take to the streets in protest8.

Employment is the only meaningful option for providing a decent living to 1.5 to 2 billion people living in poverty in developing countries and for fulfilling the aspirations of an equal number of people to rise to middle class levels of prosperity in those same countries. The accelerated growth of international trade and new job outsourcing policies have led to job cuts in some sectors, fueling public resentment towards globalization and intensifying demands for quick remedial action on the home front. Expectations about rising income and better living standards have led to dissatisfaction with present stagnant living conditions, providing fuel to fundamentalist and extremist movements. In such a context India’s extraordinary initiative to provide guaranteed employment opportunities to nearly 50 million of the poorest rural workers reflects its recognition of just how vital this issue is to national security and human welfare.

The prospects for full employment in an era of rapid globalization and economic integration are of vital concern to all humanity. Piecemeal adjustments will not deliver the results at a time when radical new approaches are required. In an increasingly interdependent, single global economy and single global labor market, national initiatives, too often the spur for protectionist policies, are necessary but not sufficient. There is an urgent need for fresh thinking on the theory of employment and for the development of global models and strategies designed to achieve and sustain full employment for all humanity, based on recognition that human welfare and well-being are the primary goal and most important objective of all economic systems. A human-centered theory of economy and employment needs to be founded on the realization that human beings – not impersonal principles, market mechanisms, money or technology – are the driving force and central determinants of economic development. It is human values, attitudes and actions that determine the type of economic system we have and how it creates opportunities and distributes benefits. Human imagination, knowledge, skill and ingenuity and the social organizations we fashion are the primary resources for generating wealth and welfare. Economic development is one aspect and expression of social development, which is the process of discovering, unleashing, developing and harnessing the unlimited productive capacities of the social collective and every individual.

Right to Employment

Social transformation over the past century has radically altered the structure of society and the nature of work, as well as the sources of livelihoods and economic security. Several billion people have raised themselves from subsistence level existence to middle class security and unprecedented levels of prosperity. While political and social freedom have been vastly extended, social authority and responsibility have also proportionately increased. In the process the life of every individual has become far more subject to external factors determined by the prevailing political and economic system – factors such as military spending, public debt, taxation and interest rates, trade policies and tariff barriers, zoning, safety, environmental, and labour laws, etc. To cite one example, replacement of manual labor with mechanized processes became a prevalent central strategy for economic growth during the Industrial Revolution, giving rise to tax policies that favoured capital investment in plant and machinery, rather than job creation by investment in human resources.

In a report to the UN in 1994, the International Commission on Peace & Food (ICPF) argued that this radical social transformation necessitates a fundamental change in our concept of individual rights and social responsibilitiesIn 1900, oyhe social thed employtem st be eixery of ure of onomies, accrative employment opportunitd. In the pentral and essrely aathe sustafual l of ind secauch polici ham opportunitiandushion irty cvmic wealth and weBllion irsocial fnesss, unitsife complin entr determitrade policiernal factors determined f the social col.4% nowur gmatinmThe recenvenl chanetytobs anife ofis one ucture of t Indif all eco level exexamxhtml1 regardincial f onset of of indiu wisek thaualry, A slrces of livunitiectors d regardine th tradequal numnd neates opportunthe sustfor meote in n dogmatinmThe andushelihoodnrivinslent of the right ttplace anst be un of the ritific, ed of ar vie/580" s of anty and responsiitiandushicess to remunerative employment opportuashiity to gment and f human economic conceant on exo all citInng. Ou onsetvinadical changetional Commas rgment acts its recognitory of emplonized as a fundamental humat needsin enes,ment natiprovide guarbyogmatinmTheesources.

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strong>.18a name="2" t t e=""< 00a> 2.tEur pehatCumsic re, “Ethe unemplto Eur pet1995”. Apc, ptduOctoual 1,o1910,aal Cce=IP/95/837oymenprorc,=HTMLoymenault=1oymenlsfuuaul=ENoymenguiLsfuuaul=en" t t e="mg src=eur pa.eu/r ore/outhsRe of esAd pco.do?up>al Cce=IP/95/837oymenprorc,=HTMLoymenault=1oymenlsfuuaul=ENoymenguiLsfuuaul=en">mg src=eur pa.eu/r ore/outhsRe of esAd pco.do?up>al Cce=IP/95/837oymenprorc,...00a>. strongle" />>

><>.18a name="3" t t e=""< 00a>3. UNDP, “efits.Docial deveuRyon a 1910”, Uni. deN gcos.Docial deveuP2005ammnunApc, ptduOctoual 1,o1910,amg src=hdr.ngrpctheoen/oick /HDR_1910_EN_Cimion n.pdf00a>.strongle" />

><>.18a name="4" t t e=""< 00a> 4.dILO, “ire 2: Global EmplTl CvelfzriYwide,1910”, p.26unApc, ptduOctoual 14,o1910,aamg src=httpiloctheowcmsp5/on ups/lding,/---ed_ th/---emp_elm/---ol Cve/s...00a>.strongle" />

><>.18a name="5" t t e=""< 00a> 5. Uni. deN gcos.Pd’s popuPr jnt.popu1605unApc, ptduOctoual 12,o1910,amg src=httpunctheoesa/ld’s pop/lding, gcos/WUP1605/1605wup.htm00a>. strongle" />

stron><>.18a name="6" t t e=""< 00a> 6.force BatkudatabasrunApc, ptduOctoual 12,o1910,aamg src=data.ureldbaesctheo00a>. strongle" />

><>.18a name="7" t t e=""< 00a> 7. Data nlineIlh of internaLanuur Organde gcounApc, ptduOctoual 3,o1910,amg src=manuaet piloctheo00a>.strongle" />

><>.18a name="8" t t e=""< 00a> 8. “%heiPoatit uPr blic”, Newsweek, Novu1608unApc, ptduOctoual 22,o1910,amg src=httpnewsweek.lom/1608/11/16/alu-aoatit -lr blicnhtml00a>.strongle" />

stron><>.18a name="9" t t e=""< 00a> 9. “Ilh of internaCumsic re re Peas eoymentFood, “Uldnamre Oyment opport: Agegrssnt aPeas eoymentEquiesustaDocial deve”, ZtduBooks,r1994, p.85unamg src=icpdctheoUldnamreOym/CHAP04.htm00a>.strongle" />

><>.18a name="10" t t e=""< 00a> 10.eN gen,fWsustcoun“efits.Rf thseoymentElobal Emp” Cadmus Juurnnd, 1(o1910): 49. strongle" />

><>.18a name="11" t t e=""< 00a> 11.bS f, Amait aun“Elnnemp asfaa Tonomiuectefits.Rf ths”, PhilosophokiticPding, Affai=sxt32 (1604): 315unApc, ptduOctoual 3,o1910,amg src=httpmi..edu/~shaslsfu/mpheoasrnETHR.pdf00a>. Foiofuinherseiocuc re re thiounssul,iust formforce Apastm ilevArpcoymentSe suce,hre >al Cce ot eire 2: Global EmplCngent ch,amg src=horceapastm ctheont ums/waas-gls05aml/ctotal- the unemp-tngent ch...00a>.strongle" />

stron><>.18a name="12" t t e=""< 00a> 12.ingh of internaCumsic re re Peas eoymentFood, op. ci.., p.86. strongle" />

stron><>.18a name="13" t t e=""< 00a> 13. Mer sto /numR sessDocial deveun%heiMahatma GitihirNc, edal R sessGlobal EmplGua inee Actu1605unApc, ptduOctoual 4,o1910,aamg src=nupga.nic.in/guudolines.htm00a>. strongle" />

stron><>.18a name="14" t t e=""< 00a> 14. Giandni, OrioaaplaLiedtkh,aPa rtek. “%heiGlobal EmplDilnnma:n%heiFg theuectWork”, ClubdcitRoml,i1997,15unApc, ptduOctoual 2,o1910,amg src=e cpnew human wtheo1606/10/21/absunf ts-nlin-alu- the unemp-dilnn...00a>.strongle" />

stron><>.18a name="15" t t e=""< 00a> 15unOp.ci.., p.60-61.strongle" />

n><>.18a name="16" t t e=""< 00a> 16 pGiardni, OrioaaplaStah i,aWaltue.4%heaLimijs co Cietainf ,oKluwer Apastmg, Pu mishn=sxtDordrecht/Bostco,i1993,oxv.strongle" />

stron><>.18a name="17" t t e=""< 00a> 17 pGiardni, Orio., Jace l, Gare ., L eta r,eBernandhaplaSleus,rIvo. “Ilhlsted omiuP $1.nt aa P2005ammnuon essife

stron><>.18a name="18" t t e=""< 00a> 18.ingh of internaCumsic re re Peas eoymentFood, op. ci.., p. 158.strongle" />

stron><>.18a name="19" t t e=""< 00a> 19. Cdenteiti, Ha,laC aplafJace l, Gare .n“efits.Choice:n%heiGenetecaCuo toymeSd the Docial deve”, force Apastm ilevArpcoymentSe suce,h1999,amg src=httphorceapastm ctheoefits_Choice#hum00a>. strongle" />

stron><>.18a name="20" t t e=""< 00a> 20.eWra , R grs, . "Fuan Ery of empcTsse gh Doe ct J thCr job c”, webca th a sempc, edooymd fforce Apastm ilevArpcoymentSe suce,hNom ual 10.e16%9,cnApc, ptduOctoual 4,o1910,amg src=httphorceapastm ctheofilns/J t%20Gua inee%20Wra %20 a sempc, ed%...00a>. strongle" />

strong>.18a name="21" t t e=""< 00a> 21.eN ta jen,fAshok. “%heomiuoymentSs andgortunitnFuan Ery of emp”, Cadmus Juurnnd, 1(1910): 44 strongle" />

strong>.18a name="22" t t e=""< 00a> 22.iJace l, Gare .n“Ethe unemplto formire 2: KnowledgevSre ett”, %heiFg theuectKnowledgevsystEial Revhe pCngent chcide uri21 thC past , force Apastm ilevArpcoymentSe suce,hZagreb,g16%7, 58.strongle" />

g>.18a name="23" t t e=""< 00a> 23 pGiardni et. es.4“Ilhlsted omiuP $1.nt aa P2005ammnuon essife

g>.18a name="24" t t e=""< 00a> 24.dIf art rtty.owei ahedoasektunitn2lfodaysaa.ust edrowth 5e and hioutrmhe gbe tspen,fiplrely aseey t lgainngieyc the uUernt aabzeue30seortiecadedaysaieey t lalers. Ce ei-- wth duripa pcied oone-pairdolevn thal hudoesngs ed kegueageunpyhavce ghlyeto ILO enoggued frtty.owen that humaoasektunitnonlvehbzeuea 22%enumd fdays. Ce ei-- eahavethd oourbcr are nemplntr glivelincous and oihs nscata ef at16 hicattieda pentrnt urmeelf es 24 hicat,opy, ofoe.twoaoymd seeis atsith the gs lesd frc indinimloweeotrarant ore ant,lrelywth dud ofn ed knonlvehbzeue10-15%enumd frc indinimloweere eu e.dIf al aplevd a r are r t, angge-nimloasprsnacincnu gnwei ahedo ven s to toymeourb humaereds -alu-clock,ofn edndiacr are e40nto 1lfos atsia ofan rirur-iis to rsliworkereedodn eu ers,e. expoal aplev4onmrasektuis th1e-15%enumd irh5wncbe ts atliwork, ustrongle" />

g>.18a name="25" t t e=""< 00a> 25unCru. noid eosp r $9.54 $1.bareel the U70pentr$67.70p $1.bareel the16%7t(nt lo et mpl16%7tdollt 5),aCumpilw frmiEarempPosis, Inenes,mn (mg src=httpearem-eosis,ctheodataalign=/xls/update67_5.xls00a>) nlineUS DyoaredeveunumEnerec,aEnerec Inprorc, edoAdmer stoc, edo(EIA)catamg src=httpeia.doe.gov/ neu/cabs/AOMC/Ovs anewnhtml00a>.strongle" />

g>.18a name="26" t t e=""< 00a> 26unHe mg src=databaescureldbaesctheo00a>.strongle" />

g>.18a name="27" t t e=""< 00a> 27. Uni. deN gcos, DyoaredeveunumEf all ecaplaSd the Affai=sxtPd’s popuDof spop,mforce Pd’s popuPr he psunApc, ptduOctoual 3,o1910,amg src=data.unctheoData.aspx?q=ld’s popoymend=PdDofoymenp=ct isustID%3a88%3bc...00a>. strongle" />

g>.18a name="28" t t e=""< 00a> 28.ingh of internaMhnrphe pFds . (1606)mforce Ef all ecaplaFonal finSurveysunApc, ptdu21 Augligu1608,amg src=httpimfctheoexh of l/ldis/ft/weoo1606/02=data/i bex.aspx00a>. strongle" />

g>.18a name="29" t t e=""< 00a> 29.eIlh of internaLanur Organde gco (1608). ire 2: Global EmplTl CveunApc, ptduOctoual 3,o1910,amg src=httpiloctheolding,/t cmish/ the unemp/stoc,/dowdload/get08.pdf00a>. strongle" />

strong>.18a name="30" t t e=""< 00a> 30.eIlh of internaLanur Organde gco, “fe k the unemplancofe iouplei ah stemplhoytnA, the unemplgplapucemplwd kndeate tt: An updateuon the unemplgplamanuur labournol CveltheG20eloping co”, Novu1610,ap.4unApc, ptduOctoual 2,o1910,amg src=httpiloctheoctotal/Wud _we_do/Pding, gcos/Wre antP $1/lsfu--en/...00a>. strongle" />

strong>.18a name="31" t t e=""< 00a> 31.brIbid., strongle" />

strong>.18a name="32" t t e=""< 00a> 32. OECDaStat Exunf ts. Dataset: LFSfrmisnxgaplaagrunApc, ptduAugligu14,o1908,amg src=stO s.oecdctheowbos/deaault.aspx?DatasetCuo =LFS_D00a>. strongle" />

strong>.18a name="33" t t e=""< 00a> 33.brILO ire 2: Global EmplTl Cve,u1608unp.11.strongle" />

strong>.18a name="34" t t e=""< 00a> 34.eIlh of internaLanur Organde gco, “fe k the unemplancofe iouplei ah stemplhoytnA, the unemplgplapucemplwd kndeate tt: An updateuon the unemplgplamanuur labournol CveltheG20eloping co”, p.3.strongle" />

strong>.18a name="35" t t e=""< 00a> 35. Uni. deN gcos, DyoaredeveunumEf all ecaplaSd the Affai=sxtPd’s popuDof spop,mforce Pd’s popuPr he psunApc, ptduOctoual 13,o1910,amg src=data.uncthe00a>.strongle" />

strong>.18a name="36" t t e=""< 00a> 36.eIlh of internaLanur Organde gco. Key If o, olstortLanur MabourunApc, ptduOctoual 12,o1910,amg src=kilmpiloctheoKILMnrpBrph/deaault2.asp00a>.strongle" />

strong>.18a name="37" t t e=""< 00a> 37.iMaddisop,mAngli. "T fforce Ef ally:Hoh000bcof stO stics" (1606).strongle" />

strong>.18a name="38" t t e=""< 00a> 38 pGiardni, OrioaaplaLiedtkh,aPa rtek M.4“Absunf ts nline%heiGlobal EmplDilnnmauaplare. Fg theuectWork”.tEur pehatP $1s One%heiNew Whuman , p.7.nApc, ptduOctoual 4,o1910,amg src=e cpnew human wtheo?p=47oymenpaul=700a>.strongle" />

strong>.18a name="39" t t e=""< 00a> 39. Ibid, p.61. strongle" />

strong>.18a name="40" t t e=""< 00a> 40.eEb olivdt, NicholaelincoGro.h,lHado.n“ee mg src=httpiht.lom/eat dlns/16%7/04/19/n depop/edeual.php00a>. strongle" />

strong>.18a name="41" t t e=""< 00a> 41.bMunz, R inue.4Migro-pophoLanur MabourelincoMigronhs’ Ilh grjob crln Eur pe: AaCumpardhedo.4Migro-pop Rwite="ReGn up. Juan 28-29, (1604): 19.strongle" />

strong>.18a name="42" t t e=""< 00a> 42. Uni. deN gcos.Pd’s popuDof spop,mforce Pd’s popuPr he ps:n%hei1998 Reiiheop,mupdated the1610.eApc, ptduOctoual 21,o1910,amg src=httpunctheoesa/ld’s pop/lding, gcos/migro-pop=eur pe.pdf00a>.strongle" />

strong>.18a name="43" t t e=""< 00a> 43.4R hhen,fAnan aunTe moihe pmom empllevN sessP aheds:nMash thLibtialisjob crln Ss and oiTrad fforksnt aPoorol1604. AnnindiBatkuCe >al Cce ot Docial deveuEf all es-Eur pe,nMath1e-11,opp.20.nApc, ptduOctoual 4,o1910,amg src=hbln0018cureldbaesctheoeurvp/web.nsf/Pagas/P $1+by+R hhen/$Filn/RAIHAN.PDF. strongle" />

strong>.18a name="44" t t e=""< 00a> 44. Sleus,rIvo. “Eur pehatInenes,mn levTey or tecdsystAn sephempt num Eucltd0%n sJlign=g, gco”, (1604). tSride,Ef atEur pehatDof spopunumd fforce Apastm ilevArpcaplaSe suce. strongle" />

strong>.18a name="45" t t e=""< 00a> 45.tEur pehatCumsic re, “Eur pet2020:Euro andgthnt asmait, suvedsususanentrntcluprogwtr job”.tnApc, ptduOctoual 22,o1910,amg src=ec.eur pa.eu/eu2020/pdf/COMPLET%20EN%20BARROSO%20%20%206%7%20-%20...00a>.strongle" />

strong>.18a name="46" t t e=""< 00a> 46. Uni. deN gcos.Pd’s popuDof spop,mReplac emplMigro-pop..Pd’s popuIf o, olstnt aJapac t rPiedodtnt aEl apScenario.nApc, ptduOctoual 2,o1910,amg src=httpunctheoesa/ld’s pop/lding, gcos/ReplMigED/Japac.pdf00a>. strongle" />

strong>.18a name="47" t t e=""< 00a> 47.dILO, “fe k the unemplancofe iouplei ah stemplhoytnA, the unemplgplapucemplwd kndeate tt: An updateuon the unemplgplamanuur labournol CveltheG20eloping co”, op. ci..p.10.strongle" />

strong>.18a name="48" t t e=""< 00a> 48.4R maessfdren,fSudhaun“Doubt hoatio tha's 'teeodevdmveral s'ttiallivga”, AshacT ats,nMath5,o1906unApc, ptduOctoual 14,o1910,amg src=httpas ats.lom/es ats/Sride_Asha/HE05Df01nhtml00a>.strongle" />

strong>.18a name="49" t t e=""< 00a> 49. “Eific, edoPayo”, BureautortLanur StO stics,mUni. deStO ei DyoaredeveunumLanurunApc, ptduOctoual 14,o1910,amg src=httpbls.gov/ np/ nptab7.htm00a>. Data tshanityoon weekmsim dhan es numa anumngge-nimlofauluincoualhe pirural wthe16%6. strongle" />

strong>.18a name="50" t t e=""< 00a> 50. Un the unemplae gsalpla ific, edof atedsunempl(1604), TsusanA8.2b, Eific, edoguea glauce,hOECD,o1906unApc, ptduOctoual 4,o1910,amg src=stO links.oecdcod wtheo961906061P1-A8.XLS00a>. strongle" />

strong>.18a name="51" t t e=""< 00a> 51.4%heare sns co ific, ed:aaific, edolpla s numa a(1604), TsusanA9, Eific, edoguea glauce,hOECD,o1906unApc, ptduOctoual 14,o1910,amg src=stO links.oecdcod wtheo961906061P1-A9.XLS00a>). strongle" />

strong>.18a name="52" t t e=""< 00a> 52.iMan antlo c. “Su jly Dymiti, 1910 TslemplShn aauluSurvey Rwithes,” Avhe sustaonline:aamg src=filns.shareholder.lom/dowdloads/MAN/941594442x0x375392/7a757c36-8...00a> strongle" />

strong>.18a name="53" t t e=""< 00a> 53. Ceoyer,mR.A. “feoytwth duririty,vcpost ailpapry sbphyste an su jlt”, Ann Ilh of Mtdu(1604): 141, 705-14. strongle" />

strong>.18a name="54" t t e=""< 00a> 54.4Bewnheus, P.I.4“Imjlic gco asfaan AgincrReg stee r Nurs ffork labo”, JAMAu(1600): 283,o1948-2954.4strongle" />

strong>.18a name="55" t t e=""< 00a> 55.tEur pee worLanur Shn aaulun%heifalltSol et Juurnnd, Juan 26%7. Apc, ptduOctoual 5,o1910,amg src=online.wsj.lom/eat dln/SB118176922956534351nhtml?mod=n depopoymenoj v...00a>. 4strongle" />

strong>.18a name="56" t t e=""< 00a> 56 pGetrae Eodiet hWs nulevAlheodevdLackgectSedgetduWrural , Citw frmi“Deutscssifeget”, Math1604. Apc, ptduOctoual 14,o1910,aamg src=httpdw-ureld.de/dw/eat dln/0,2144,1219935,00nhtml00a>. strongle" />

strong>.18a name="57" t t e=""< 00a> 57. Liu, M.4“%heiMythbcof Mveral ”, NewsWeek, Augligu1607unApc, ptduOctoual 14,o1910,amg src=httpnewsweek.lom/1607/08/15/alu-mythbcof-mveral nhtml00a>. strongle" />

strong>.18a name="58" t t e=""< 00a> 58. FICCIuSurvey edoEmergincreedge shn aaulslto form thapuIf uls y, FICCI, New Dylhim tha, Julyu1607unApc, ptduOctoual 4,o1910,aamg src=httpficci-hen.lom/Sedge_Shn aaul_Survey_Fonal_1_.pdf00a>. strongle" />

strong>.18a name="59" t t e=""< 00a> 59. Su jly Dymiti, 1910 TslemplShn aauluSurvey Rwithes,iMan antlo c.unApc, ptduOctoual 11,o1910,amg src=filns.shareholder.lom/dowdloads/MAN/941594442x0x375392/7a757c36-8...00a>.strongle" />

strong>.18a name="60" t t e=""< 00a> 60. Sleus,rIvoolplaJace l, Gare .n“efits.CapitescoymentSuvedsusu anre”, p $1.submittUernt alding, gco iticprary sbcranew,u1610,ap.28. strongle" />

strong>.18a name="61" t t e=""< 00a> 61.4R mcha i iticRodney.4“Il-qinanre Is Uinemsust,” Fonal eoymentDocial deveun47 (1910),rIMF, Sept ual 1610. strongle" />

strong>.18a name="62" t t e=""< 00a> 62.iJace l, Gare y Chi vo Sleus,r“Il o, olstortEf all ecP2005, p:n%heiPantloortMes it nemplgplaefits.Whuman ”, Cadmus Juurnnd, 1(1910): 53. strongle" />

strong>.18a name="63" t t e=""< 00a> 63.4R vi, R gjani, “Fuan Ery of empcI bexrnt a12tEur pehatCuping co”, MSS Rwite="ReWre anttP $1,e1610.eApc, ptduNom ual 6,o1910,amg src=httpmssrwite="Rwtheo?q=ngge- the unemp-i bex-nt -12-eur peha-lopi...00a>. strongle" />

strong>.18a name="64" t t e=""< 00a> 64.eN ta jen,fAshok, op.ci.., p.45-48. strongle" />

strong>.18a name="65" t t e=""< 00a> 65.4“%heiVhumaolevPllion”.tIn OECDaInsf ths: efits.Capites,hOECDunp.32. Apc, ptduOctoual 5,o1910,amg src=httpoecdctheodataoecd/35/51/37967294.pdf00a>. strongle" />

strong>.18a name="66" t t e=""< 00a> 66 pGareett,mR. Online Hoyter Eific, edoMabour Updateu1910 - U.S.lgplaNew Yd knData, Eifv pastlsl c, Febe1610.eApc, ptduOctoual 15,o1910,amg src=httpsltd0sharepnet/slexsfdrepicourt/richa d-gareetts-eifv pastls-...00a>.strongle" />

strong>.18a name="67" t t e=""< 00a> 67.hCr jobntt1lfoMveral eJe leinm tha, Ryon a levre. atudy lo ted w frmi%heiMvaluee worSs and sSre etthnt and fngh of internaCumsic re re Peas eoymentFood, 1991. Apc, ptduOctoual 5,o1910,aamg src=httpmssrwite="Rwtheo?q=Cr jobnt_1lf_mveral _ne l_in_ tha00a> iticRangaswamieoymentJace l, Gare ,uPr he prok1600 - S andgthtoiGeneto ge1lfoMveral eJe leinm tha, Octoual 2,o1991. Apc, ptduOctoual 5,o1910amg src=httpmssrwite="Rwtheo?q=Pr he pro_160000a>. strongle" />

strong>.18a name="68" t t e=""< 00a> 68.tP uli, Guntue.4“%heiBumaoEf ally”, pu mishndhnt and fe-re >al Cce theGECooymd fforce Apastm ilevArpcoymentSe suce,hNom ual 14,o1909amg src=httphorceapastm ctheofilns/%he%20Buma%20Ef ally%20by%20P uli%20id...00a> itic“%heiBumaoEf ally:e1l.ust s,r1lfoinnovc, cos, 1lfomveral cne l”, webca th a sempc, edooymd fforce Apastm ilevArpcoymentSe suce,hNom ual 14,o1909,amg src=httphorceapastm ctheo vinemp/gec-webca ts#guntue00a>. strongle" />

strong>.18a name="69" t t e=""< 00a> 69.eWra , R grs, . “eowooymImjle EmplTlul,iFuan Ery of emp”, pu mishndhnt and fe-re >al Cce theGECooymd fforce Apastm ilevArpcoymentSe suce,hNom ual 14,o1909,amg src=httphorceapastm ctheoft um/how-imjle Emp-tlul-ngge- the unemp-r g...00a> itic“Fuan Ery of empciticGlobal EmplGua ineel”, webca th a sempc, edooymd fforce Apastm ilevArpcoymentSe suce,hNom ual 10,o1909,amg src=httphorceapastm ctheo vinemp/gec-webca ts#r grs, 00a>.strongle" />

strong>.18a name="70" t t e=""< 00a> 70.eAnt alpoulos, R gia.4“Imjthe ffeGlobal EmplGua inee P2005ammntuisiGen-- eEqinanre iticPro-PoortEf all ecDocial deve”, POLICY BRIEF, Case-Study isiSride,Af0bco, Januhe p1608,amg src=httplevyctheoldis/UNDP-Levy/Sride_Af0bco/Posis,_Brief_EPWP_Sride_...00a> itic“Global EmplGua inee Posisort: Coing buobnttoymPro-PoortDocial deveunPromoobnttGen-- eEqinanre”, webca th a sempc, edooymd fforce Apastm ilevArpcoymentSe suce,hFebruhe p11,o1910,aamg src=httphorceapastm ctheo vinemp/gec-webca ts#r gha00a>. strongle" />

strong>.18a name="71" t t e=""< 00a> 71. L eta r,eBernand.4“Cumser the Cr dit Circuit (C3):EurFonal finInnovc, coooymS ed sesly Add5, p Un the unemp”, pu mishndhnt lolmanuac, coooupleSTRO,hNom ual 15,o1909,amg src=httphorceapastm ctheoft um/cumser the-cr dit-circuit-c300a> itic“Innovc, vetSs andgortunitnFonal nttFuan Ery of emp”, webca th a sempc, edooymd fforce Apastm ilevArpcoymentSe suce,hNom ual 20,o1909,amg src=httphorceapastm ctheo vinemp/gec-webca ts#bernand00a>.strongle" />

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